Compare and Contrast the Budget Cycle Between Presidential System and Parliamentary Democracy System

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INDEPENDENT BUDGET PROCESSES OF PARLIAMENT ACCOUNTABILITY AND SCRUTINY OF PARLIAMENTARY BUDGET
15 July 2010

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Introduction

Since the democratic dispensation in South Africa, government have developed progressive laws that embrace democratic values. These include the Constitution (Act no. 108 of 1996), which entrenches democratic rights and provides a core foundation for the functionality of the South African government. Among other things, the Constitution sets out structures of government, assigns powers and authority of government and spells out the citizens’ rights. Underpinned in the Constitution are the delegation of powers and authority, and the doctrine of the separation of powers among the three
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It should also include performance measurement information per programme, which is useful in assessing the performance of Parliament. The Accounting Officer is further required to prepare a three year-rolling performance plan, which should indicate any changes from the strategic plan. This plan provides performance information that assists in measuring both programme and institutional performance at the end of the cycle. Both strategic plan and annual performance plan are required to be tabled in Parliament by the Executive Authority for approval. Annual Budget A budget is a document that, once approved by the legislature authorises government institutions to raise revenue, incur debts and effect expenditures in order to achieve certain goals.4 The budget should be responsive to policy direction, focus on the achievement of results and should promote openness, transparency and accountability. In line with these practices, the budget of Parliament is allocated to finance policy priorities as identified in both strategic and annual performance plans. The Act requires that a three-year rolling budget be prepared by the Accounting Officer and presented to the Executive Authority within ten months prior to the start of the financial year. In promoting transparency, such budget should disclose the revenue sources of Parliament and specify amounts allocated to Members of Parliament and political parties. Allocations to different divisions
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