Comparing Marx, Durkhiem, and Weber's Perceptions of the Development of Society from Pre-Modern to Modernity

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Comparing Marx, Durkhiem, and Weber's Perceptions of the Development of Society from Pre-Modern to Modernity Sociological perspective has benefited from Marx, Durkhiem and Weber’s theories, regarding human nature and the development of their societies. Each one had their differing characteristics. Marx saw class conflict and Capitalism central to his theory, whereas Durkhiem concentrated on Industrialism and the division of labour and Weber rationalization and bureaucracy. Marx had three major features in his analysis, mainly how goods and services are organized; the conflicts which arise and how it motivates change from…show more content…
Although statistical correlations were important between social facts one also needed to grasp the level of meaning of human action. Weber began investigation with social events but this proved difficult as he was concerned with events which had passed; mainly the origins of modern capitalism. Therefore he adopted the method of Verstehen, this is translated as ‘empathic understanding’ this perspective imagined how the world would have looked from the actors point of view’ contrary to one’s own. Weber constructed an ideal type of categories for generalization to help us make sense of our observations, not one type fits exactly but it helps as a guideline in identifying one form of bureaucracy from another organization. He included this list of six ideal characteristics and the concept of vertehen in his four fold categorizations of types of action. Weber continued this argument and believed that modern societies were succumbing to more rationalization. Along with this idea he believed that disenchantment was apparent and was partly due to secularization within society. Some criticism has been given to Weber’s concept of ideal types though as they are not always clear enough when he uses them to clarify types of action. Weber’s technique of interpreting the role of social actors has been criticized for exagerating the method of Verstehen to explain

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