Madison’s primary focus throughout the beginning of this paper is factions. He holds a deep disdain for them as he thinks that they solely focus on themselves, while hurting other Americans, which is evident in this quote, (“…united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adversed to the rights of other citizens, or to the
In one of his most widely read texts, the Republic, Plato sets out to explore the very nature of the concept of Justice, the various forms it takes in the world, and its relevance to the lives of men. As Socrates states, it is about “the way we ought to live” (I 352d). The dialogue begins by introducing the commonly held view of justice, via Thrasymachus, Glaucon and Adeimantus, as the non-performance of certain types of unlawful or antisocial acts. However, the entire treatise quickly moves on to concentrate on a different meaning of justice, as a form of moral virtue. He wishes to demonstrate that justice and morality are interconnected because humans can only achieve a good life – which he claims is the best way to live – if they have those things that are desirable in themselves (II 357b). Therefore Plato’s argument, as it sets out to prove the intrinsic value of living a just life, is neither deontological, nor consequentialist. In the Republic, Plato is arguing for the transcendent value of justice as a human good, or virtue, which informs and guides moral conduct.
One of the biggest sources that factions come from are from the distribution of land. There are two main ones, those with lots and land and those with little land. Even though these groups conflict, the government is obliged to guard the interests of each group. Madison stated two ways to control factions, which were to remove its causes and controlling its effect. Madison says next that he worries about corruption of members of the new government, but says it is less likely because representative will be chosen by a large population. He also discusses the differences between a republic and a democracy, along with that the main goal of the Constitution is to make all 13 states secure from threats and invasion.
What Madison is saying is that factions are going to be in a society no matter what. People are going to have different opinions. Factions are always going to exist, and no matter what, the government cannot remove factions because if they do then they are eliminating peoples rights. The constitution protects against this. ?Liberty is to faction, what air is to fire, an aliment without which it instantly expires. But it could not be a less folly to abolish liberty, which is essential to political life, because it nourishes faction, than it would be to wish the annihilation of air, which is essential to animal life, because it imparts to fire its destructive agency.? This is one reason that the Americans had success (Ziegler 216).
James Madison wrote The Federalist No. 10 to inform the people about the problems and possible solutions for the formation of factions. Through multiple statements concerning the dangers of factions and the benefits of a republic, Madison’s major argument was in favor of the United States Constitution. Madison defined a faction as "A number of citizens, whether amounting to a minority or majority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion or interest, adverse to the rights of other citizens or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community." (Madison p. 1) Factions can be compared to the modern day lobby group; or as groups of people with a common self-interest. These groups are only involved for
In The Republic by Plato, Plato constructed an ideal city where Philosophers would rule. Governed by an aristocratic form of government, it took away some of the most basic rights a normal citizen should deserve, freedom of choice, worship, and assembly were distressed. Though the idea of philosopher kings is good on paper, fundamental flaws of the human kind even described by Plato himself prevent it from being truly successful. The idea of an ideal democratic government like what our founding fathers had envisioned is the most successful and best political form which will ensure individual freedom and keep power struggle to a minimum.
Plato’s The Republic and Aristotle’s The Politics are two classic texts in ancient Greek political thought. Although Plato taught Aristotle, the two philosophers had differing viewpoints on many subjects, one of them being the purpose of political rule. Plato believed that the purpose of political rule is to allow for the manifestation of a just city where both the city and its citizens are in harmony due to a specialization of roles according to individuals’ natures, whereas Aristotle believed that the purpose of political rule is to create a regime that pursues the common advantage and preserves the political partnership of the city.
The only way to manage faction is to remove its causes and to control its effects. By removing its causes Madison believes that liberty will be destroyed, or that by giving every citizen the same opinions, passions, and interests, would be impossible because people can never all be the same. Madison wanted the United States to be a republic, a form of democracy in which power is vested in representatives, so there will be a greater number of citizens represented and we will also be able to have more control over the factions effects.
At the beginning of Book I, we are introduced to the narrator, Socrates, and his audience of peers. We are made aware, however, of Socrates' special charm and intellectual gifts through the insistence of Polemarchus and the other men for the pleasure of his company. The tone is casual and language and modes of expression rather simple, as is commonly the case in Plato's dialogues. However, Plato's unaffected style serves at least two purposes. For one it belies the complexity and elevation of the ideas, thus it is in accord with Socrates' characteristic irony itself, which draws the "fool" in by feigned ignorance, only so that the master can show that he does not know what he thinks he knows. And second,
Plato, James Madison, and John Mills are all supporters of the idea that opinion must be discussed in public debate. In my own reason-based thought this idea that through silence ignorance grows louder is my own general understanding.
The philosophies of Madison can be arguably split up into two different segments. First, Madison is portrayed as a founding father who ties strong commitments to the individual’s liberty and property rights and how they are fundamental to his idea of republican government. The opposite view of Madison’s philosophy is that he is a fundamental believer to the principle of majority rule as the basis of republican government. As mentioned above, this essay will focus on two authors, Richard Matthews and Gregory Weiner, as they provide detailed opinions for both views of Madisonian philosophy. Before determining the best route in understanding Madison’s political ideology, it is important to point out the viewpoints of the two authors. Richard Matthews argues that Madison is a “constant liberal prince” who’s committed to the individual liberty and property rights; whereas Gregory Weiner argues the latter, that Madison stands firmly in the thought that the principles of majority rule is the foundation of his version of republican government. Although these two authors disagree on the majority of principles Madison spoke on, they stand united on one Madisonian idea, the idea that Madison wanted reason to always triumph passion.
He pointed out the flaws of the four main political systems, and sought a new way of government. He came up with a subsidiary of a democracy, called, as his book was, a republic. This new form of government would have leaders be elected by the people they governed, and lead to the new political concept of popular sovereignty. This meant that in a democracy or republic, if citizens felt that who they elected wasn’t doing a good job, they wouldn’t have to re-elect them. On the other hand, Aristotle denounced Plato's idea of an “ideal state,” in his book titled The Politics. Instead of trying to theorize an ideal state, Aristotle took a more practical approach in trying to make a Constitution that could be easily implemented. He divided some of the types of governments in Greece into either “True,” or “Defective.” After researching he figured that the easiest to implement and least problematic was a system called a polity. hybrid between an oligarchy and a democracy that would uprise with a strong, educated middle class. It is also referred to as a “Middle Class Polity.” In ancient Rome, they implemented a republic, and the Romans
What mix of traits creates the perfect ruler? Some may say charisma, personability, or even good looks. Throughout history, a plethora of leaders with different views have been successful for many different kinds of societies. Depending on what the society needs, rulers change their ways as well as do what they can for the good of their people. In Plato’s The Republic, the character Socrates argues with his peers about what makes the perfect society, as well as the perfect leader. According to Plato, the wisest choice for a ruler in a near perfect society is a philosopher, containing multiple important attributes. A wide variety of characteristics are covered, yet Plato seems to focus in on several key foundations. Plato’s views on essential traits of a philosopher focus on the necessity of truth and thirst for knowledge.
believes that the son will realize to be just is only worth it if you can get a
The history of philosophy can be viewed as the result of the work of an obscure Athenian whose voluminous works, penetrating questions, novel ideas, and didactic teachings have shaped the flow of nearly all philosophic thought. It has been said that the influence of the ancient Greek philosopher named Plato has laid the foundation for Western culture. Plato was born to an aristocratic family in Athens in 428/427 B.C. As a young man, Plato studied poetry, but later under the tutelage of the famed Socrates, turned to philosophy, who introduced him to the ethical importance of the pursuit of wisdom. Plato was also influenced by the