Comparison of Theories of Attachment

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This essay will firstly explain the different stage that is associated with development of young people socially in the early years of their life, with examples of Schaffer and Emerson’s theory of stages of attachment. Next the essay will evaluate the theories of attachment between a child and their parents/guardians, evaluating Bowlby’s theory of attachment, and using examples from Freud’s ‘cupboard love theories’ and behavioural and psychoanalytic perspectives in comparison to Bowlby. Next it will look at any contributing factors that make a difference to individuals during attachment and looking at way fear and anxiety play a part during separation for children from their primary carer. After which the essay will respond to Bowlby’s…show more content…
father, grandparents etc. With the strongest attachment still with the mother, the ‘fear of stranger’s response’ weakens. A Criticism of ‘cupboard love theory’, were Harlow’s study involving rhesus monkeys (1959). He separated new born monkeys from their mothers and raised them in a cage each containing a blanket, he noticed the monkeys became attached to the blanket but were concerned when the blanket was removed. But to determine whether it was food or close comfort was more important, Harlow placed a monkey with two ‘different mothers’, one being a ‘mother’ made of wire but with a bottle attached and the other being a ‘mother’ made of a soft blanket but with no bottle attached. Harlow found that the monkey spent most time with the clothed mother, and concluded that monkeys have an unlearned need for ‘contact comfort’ which is as essential as the need for food. He also found that the clothed mother served as a secure environment for the monkey. When Harlow placed a ‘fear stimuli’ in the cage the monkey would explore it before retreating back to clothed mother for security, however when the clothed mother was removed the monkey would cower in fear and freeze. Ainsworth (1967) conducted a ‘Ganda project’, which looked into the individual differences in children’s attachment to their mothers/primary carer. She used babies ranging from ages between 15 weeks – 2 years old; they were studied every 2 weeks for 2 hours a time over a nine months. Ainsworth
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