Comparison of Three Isomers of Butanol Essay

1281 WordsSep 21, 20116 Pages
1.5.1 Comparison of Three Isomers of Butanol Introduction: An alcohol's reactivity is determined based on the attachment of their hydroxyl functional group. The location of this hydroxyl functional group will impact the molecular structure of the alcohol, making it either primary (1° ), secondary (2° ), or tertiary (3° ). If the OH is bonded to only one other carbon, it is a primary alcohol (eg. 1-butanol); if bonded to two other carbons, it is a secondary alcohol (eg. 2-butanol); if bonded to three other carbons, it is a tertiary alcohol (eg. 2-methyl-2-propanol). Due to the placement of the hydroxyl functional group in each of the degrees of alcohol, the reactivity of each should be impacted. This means that all three…show more content…
4. Write a structural diagram equation to represent the reaction between each alcohol and HCl(aq). 5. Write a structural diagram equation to represent the controlled oxidation of each alcohol in KMnO4(aq) solution. 6. Summarize in a few sentences the halogenation and controlled oxidation reactions of 1°, 2°, and 3° alcohols. During the halogenation reactions of 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and 2-methyl-2-propanol, there is a formation of water from the OH atom of the alcohol, and the H atom from the HCl solution. The OH bond of the alcohol is then substituted with the Cl atom. Therefore all of the degrees of alcohol undergo halogenation reactions, and form alkyl halides as products. This is because the functional group of alkyl halides is a carbon-halogen bond. A common halogen is chlorine, as used in this experiment. The products of the primary alcohol reaction, 1-butanol and HCl, are 1-chlorobutane and water; products of the secondary alcohol, 2-butanol and HCl are 2-chlorobutane and water; products of the tertiary alcohol, 2-methyl-2-propanol are 2-methyl-2-chloropropane and water. In the controlled oxidation reactions of 1-butanol and 2-butanol with KMnO4, there is also a formation of water. The primary alcohol 1-butanol, reacted with KMnO4 to create butanal, an aldehyde, and water as products. Also the secondary alcohol, 2-butanol and KMnO4
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