# Compilation of Mathematicians and Their Contributions

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I. Greek Mathematicians

Thales of Miletus

Birthdate: 624 B.C.
Died: 547-546 B. C.
Nationality: Greek
Title: Regarded as “Father of Science”

Contributions: * He is credited with the first use of deductive reasoning applied to geometry. * Discovery that a circle is bisected by its diameter, that the base angles of an isosceles triangle are equal and that vertical angles are equal. * Accredited with foundation of the Ionian school of Mathematics that was a centre of learning and research. * Thales theorems used in Geometry:

1. The pairs of opposite angles formed by two intersecting lines are equal. 2. The base angles of an isosceles triangle are equal. 3. The sum of the angles in a triangle is 180°. 4. An angle
The attribution is held to be anachronistic however by J J O'Connor and E F Robertson who name Theon of Alexandria as a more likely author. 4. Phaenomena, a treatise on spherical astronomy, survives in Greek; it is quite similar to On the Moving Sphere by Autolycus of Pitane, who flourished around 310 BC.

* Famous five postulates of Euclid as mentioned in his book Elements

1. Point is that which has no part. 2. Line is a breadthless length. 3. The extremities of lines are points. 4. A straight line lies equally with respect to the points on itself. 5. One can draw a straight line from any point to any point.

* The Elements also include the following five "common notions": 1. Things that are equal to the same thing are also equal to one another (Transitive property of equality). 2. If equals are added to equals, then the wholes are equal. 3. If equals are subtracted from equals, then the remainders are equal. 4. Things that coincide with one another equal one another (Reflexive Property). 5. The whole is greater than the part.

Plato
Birthdate: 424/423 B.C.
Died: 348/347 B.C.
Nationality: Greek

Contributions: * He helped to distinguish between pure and applied mathematics by widening the gap between "arithmetic", now called number theory and "logistic", now called arithmetic. * Founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the