Because of ghrelin’s effect on appetite and its suggested role in eating disorders, this research will aim to investigate ghrelin’s relationship with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). The following paper will determine exactly how these eating disorders influence ghrelin regulation or how ghrelin levels may influence the eating disorders themselves. This paper will examine ghrelin’s functions, the two eating disorders, and what that relationship precisely is by examining ghrelin’s metabolic actions as well as two clinical trials that explore its role in bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa.
While it has been long assumed that bulimia and anorexia have stemmed from insecurities and poor choices; DNA, genetics, endorphins, cholecystokinin, and CCK levels, among other things, are all important deciding factors of whether or not someone will be plagued with the diseases. Among the two, bulimia nervosa has had the most backed research on what could be the cause and nature of the disease. Bulimia Nervosa is a binge eating disorder. During these binges the participants eat without their food hormone receptors turning off resulting in them eating more than what would be FDA approved. After one of their binges they quickly purge themselves in a hope to lose the weight they gained during their binges. Pinpointing the causes of it have proven difficult because the disorder has both mental and psychical components, and it develops in
Some types of medications may help reduce symptoms of binge eating disorder, but are not designed
In DMS-IV binge eating disorder wasn’t its own disorder. It was analyzed for various reasons, such as having comparable symptoms of bulimia nervosa and anorexia (Williamson, D. A., et al., 2002) After much debate of the issue, in DMS-5 binge eating disorder became its own disorder due to understanding that the disorder is similar to but less severe than full syndromes of anorexia and bulimia nervosa
Eating disorders have similar attributes to addictions and impulse control disorders as they have the two components of cravings and compulsivity. Eating disorders display the attribute of cravings when it comes to the craving to obtain food or even purge food. Compulsivity is also seen when people compulsively eat until they feel sick. These attributes are easy to see within the diagnoses of binge eating. Binge eating involves eating an abnormally large amount of food in a small amount of time. This can be a craving for those with the disorder and they find themselves compulsively eating until they are awfully full. The attributes of cravings and compulsivity are also seen within other addictions and impulse control disorders as they
According to the DSM-5, eating disorders are characterized by a persistent disturbance of eating–related behavior that results in non-normative eating patterns which leads to impaired physical and psychosocial functioning, (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Bulimia Nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating with inappropriate compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain. Binge eating is described as eating an amount of food definitely larger than normal with a sense of lack of control. Compensatory behaviors include misuse of laxatives, self-induced vomiting, diuretics, fasting and excessive exercise, (Comer, 2014) . Another key feature is
Over time, many diseases and famines have spread across the globe. In the modern, developed world, different, yet equally severe, problems have arisen. One of the leading complications in today’s society is eating disorders. These relentless disturbances are known for being lethal and for ravaging the world.
Individuals suffering from bulimia nervosa binge and purge excessive amounts of food. The two other inclusive diagnostic criteria, as defined by the DSM-5, are three months of symptoms and an aspect of negative self-worth (Comer, 2014). Binging is when an individual repeatedly overeats, usually without any conscious control (Comer, 2014). For psychologists working under the biological model, various factors within in an individual’s biology causes bulimia nervosa. Potential biological factors include abnormalities in a person’s genetics, neuroendocrine levels, and internal awareness (Polivy & Herman, 2002). For example, some psychologists propose that a lack of 5-HT at least partially causes individuals to develop bulimia nervosa (Polivy & Herman,
Ramifications of obesity have been long recognized by health care professions, but there is no clinically recognized definition of food addiction. Mental health researchers at Yale University applied traditional criteria for substance abuse to eating and obesity and found striking similarities (Liebman, 2012). There remains considerable debate about classifying nonsubstance addictions, with some mental health professionals suggesting that these are behavioral disorders rather than disorders with neurobiological causes.
Recurring studies state that child sexual abuse is more strongly associated with bulimic disorders than restricting anorexia; however, it is not linked with the severity of the disturbance. While the regulation of eating patterns is a form of control, the individual becomes consumed and co-dependent by thoughts of food. Therefore, binges occur in response to acute changes in mood and temporarily distract patients from stressful life events. Binge eating behaviour is a form of passive processing, a stimulus-controlled activation of a cognitive structure that is uncontrollable (Stein, 1996). Survivors of sexual abuse often blame themselves for not stopping the abuse and thus, they obsess over of because it is easily accessible and controllable.
Overeating provides an interesting parallel to addictive behaviour. Much like habitual drug users, obese individuals commonly report experiencing craving and preoccupation with food (Herman and Polivy, 2008; Jastreboff, Sinha, Lacadie, Small, Sherwin & Potenza, 2013). The influence that food relevant cues (e.g. sight, smell, taste) have on food intake has also been well documented (for review see Herman & Polivy, 2008). . It is plausible that dopaminergic conditioning occurs in individuals who habitually overeat. Attempts to establish if attentional bias for food cues is a useful predictor of obesity risk have had mixed success. However there is a growing body of research that demonstrated that obese individuals allocate greater attentional
In our Western society, we have several different types of eating dysfunction, all of which are unique and tragic in their own right. Despite their individuality, however, they all have several overlapping symptoms that are key to their classification and severity. For Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and Binge Eating Disorder (BED), one of the core features is binge eating, which can be defined objectively by number of calories eaten in a given time or subjectively by the feelings of the binger. Binge eating has many different aspects that are of interest to scientists and clinicians alike. One of those interests has to do with the reduction of this symptom among populations being treated for their respective disorder. Because both
The neurochemical changes that take place when restricting food and binging are mirrored by those with addiction to drugs and alcohol. A dysfunction hypothalamus is an additional part of the brain that is involved in controlling appetite and eating patterns. The hypothalamus is thought of as the on and off switch for producing and suppressing feelings of hunger (Wadden et. al, 2004). Research demonstrates that those given MRI’s show abnormal activity in both the ventromedial hypothalamus and the lateral hypothalamus (Cash & Smolak, 2011). Both parts work together to create the homeostasis one’s appetite. Those diagnosed with anorexia nervosa may have an abnormal activity in the lateral hypothalamus that creates a sense of hunger. Whereas
In not only science but also in psychology the scientific method is used when directing a research. The steps to the method include asking a question, doing background research, constructing a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis by running an experiment, analyzing the data and drawing a conclusion, and finally communicating the results. The first article was on research executed to determine if binge eating could predict suicidal behaviors. The study showed that women, who would binge eat, were more prone to suicidal thoughts. At the John Hopkins University various researchers found that girls who displayed symptoms of depressions and anxiety were also likely to display binge-eating habits. Studies also showed that girls with similar eating
There are multiple ways to be guided to an eating disorder other than the media. “Eating behavior is a complex process controlled by the neuroendocrine system of which the Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis (HPA axis) is a major component” (News Medical). Psychological research is very important to patients who have an eating disorder. Throughout the research in the paper, researchers have come to a conclusion that some of the qualities in the brain a person has a certain level