On April 4th of this year, Microsoft issued security bulletin MS15-034; this security bulletin explains a vulnerability that “could allow remote code execution if an attacker sends a specially crafted HTTP request to an affected Windows system.” Later, on June 9th, Microsoft issued another security bulletin, MS15-056; this security bulletin explains a vulnerability that “could allow remote code execution if a user views a specially crafted webpage using Internet Explorer. An attacker who
The Shellshock bug in GNU Bash also known as CVE-2014-6271 is an exploit where an attacker can execute arbitrary commands to a victims system. These commands can perform remote code execution on vulnerable machines. The vulnerability is present in Bash version 4.3 and under. The bug was has been in the wild for about 20 years and it was discovered by Stephane Chazelas. One of the exploits CVE-2014-6271 causes is remote code execution via CGI scripting. Common Gateway Scripting is a common method used to generate dynamic content on Web pages and Web applications.
After initial intrusion malicious software is installed on victim host that is re-ferred as RAT (remote access Trojan). RAT takes the responsibility to connect with attacker and regularly performed the actions that instructed by attacker. At this intruder take the full command and control (C2) over target host. The fact is that the initial connection is established by victim host, not by the attacker . This will happens mainly for two reasons: (i) organizations firewall usually allows the connections initialized by internal hosts, and (ii) this will help the attacker to not to detected easily. Because intrusion detection systems  can easily detect the extremely suspicious activity such as downloads from outside hosts.
UPnP Internet servers were found to have remotely exploitable unchecked buffers that would allow, in principle, remote malicious hackers. Microsoft Windows is vulnerable to a buffer overflow, caused by improper bounds checking by the Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) service. By sending a specially-crafted HTTP request, a remote attacker could overflow a buffer and execute arbitrary code on the system with elevated privileges when combined with another exploit. Unused Internet servers and services should not be left running if they are not actively needed, for this reason this port should be closed until needed.
Next is Denial of Service. According to Conklin, White, Williams, Davis, and Cothren (2012), a Denial of Service (DoS) attack is an attack intended to disrupt a system or service from operating normally. The attacker will attempt, through means of crashing the system, closing out a logged on session, or overwhelming a machine with multiple
This would mean programmers would have to edit their code every time they changed machines or added more memory (Lemley, 1999). Early computers had small amounts of RAM because storage technology was very expensive. Programmers had to store master copies of programs on a secondary storage system and pull pieces into RAM as needed. The process of deciding which pieces to pull and which parts of RAM to replace was called “overlaying” (Denning, 2012). “It was estimated that most programmers spent half to two-thirds of their time planning overlay sequences. A reliable method of automating it had potential to increase programmer productivity and reduce debugging by several fold” (Denning, 2012). Thus, the concept of virtual memory was born. This concept makes use of the computer’s hard drive when main memory runs out. However, the hard drive is significantly slower than RAM so we want to keep most of the program functioning in RAM thus specialized hardware and software is needed to give the illusion of unlimited available fast memory (Lemley, 1999). This hardware converts a “virtual” address to a physical address in memory. Aside from virtually increasing memory size, virtual memory also provided three additional benefits, “it isolated users from each other, it allowed dynamic relocation of program pieces within RAM, and it provided read – write access control to individual pieces” (Denning, 2012). It is for these
This attack is very similar to the Quick Double Switch, but only difference is that the attacker maintains remote access to the victim's machine. This access allows the attacker to interact with the victim’s machine from time to time, execute arbitrary code, and collect that code’s output.
System/application attacks fall within three categories: denial or destruction, alteration, and disclosure. This paper will cover some common system/application domain vulnerabilities: unauthorized physical and logical access to resources, weaknesses in server operating system and application software, and data loss.
A post-exploitation module enables you to gather more information or to gain further access to an exploited target system. Examples of post-exploitation modules include hash dumps and application and service enumerators.
Processes can communicate using any of the traditional UNIX-type mechanisms, where, the Linux permissions still apply. Android also provides Inter Process Communication (IPC) mechanisms: 
Mechanisms should be in place at the endpoint to ensure that only known and authorized application code (whitelist) including binaries, scripts, libraries are allowed to execute on the endpoint to prevent the endpoint from being compromised by malicious code. All other execution attempts should be halted, logged and reported. The security management system may update the