Computer Software

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Computer software can be divided into two main categories: application software and system software.
Application Software:

Application Software includes programs that do real work for user.


Payroll systems, Inventory Control, Manage student database, Word Processor, Spreadsheet and Database Management System etc.
Application software consists of the programs for performing tasks particular to the machine's utilization. Examples of application software include spreadsheets, database systems, desktop publishing systems, program development software, and games." Application software is generally what we think of when someone speaks of computer programs. This software is designed to solve a particular problem for users.

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The information handled and manipulated by the other layers of an n-tier system is basically stored in a structured manner in a database. Take an example of any organization. How do you think they store their employee and customer information? Yes, they store it in a database. Imagine a website and where do you think the site maintains the login information about its users? The answer is again, a database.
A relational database contains tables which are linked together. Each table contains records which contain fields. A query can filter your records to show just the ones that meet certain criteria or to arrange them in a particular order.


Relational Databases - An Introduction

One of the most popularly used database models is the relational model. It was developed by Edgar Codd in 1969. This model provides a declarative method for specification of data and queries. In a relational model of a database, the database users directly state the information they want to be retrieved from it and abstract away from the responsibility of describing the data structures that are used to store data. A database that confirms to the relational database model is known as a relational database.
A relational database is a collection of relations or tables. The rows of a table in a relational database are known as tuples and each column of a table is called an attribute. By definition, a relation becomes a set of tuples having the same attributes. Operations,
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