Concept Of Culture And Organizational Analysis

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3.0 LITRATURE REVIEW 3.1 Concept of culture and organizational analysis: The concept of culture has been linked increasingly with the study of organisation (Graves and Rouse, 1990). Nevertheless, Organisational culture is a set of beliefs, values, and norms, together with symbols like dramatized events and personalities, which represents the unique character of an organization, and provides the context for action in it and by it (Deshpande and Webster, 1989; Ravasi and Schultz, 2006; Xiaoming and Junchen, 2012). In other words, these organizational values in turn form out the standard norms and guidelines for the organization that makes it distinct from others (Van Maanen 1979). Schein (2004), stated that functionalist believes that…show more content…
Finally, many definitions imply that organizational culture is multidimensional and multileveled and includes many cognitive and symbolic strata. Hofstede (1980) framework for analyzing organizational culture mentions two different types-dimensions of organizational culture: Individualism and Collectivism, which are likely to influence the process of employees’ social categorization. Individualistic organizational cultures focus on and reward employees’ personal accomplishments, individual characteristics and abilities. This dimension is rather flexible, as employees are allowed and encouraged to behave in their own personal way (Chatman et al. 1998). Therefore, organizational membership is not salient and personality traits are appreciated. As Markus and Kitayama (1991) argued that individuals maintain their independence from others by attending to the self and by discovering and expressing their unique inner attributes. Collectivistic organizational cultures, on the other hand functionalist,belives that the general agreement of acceptable actions and behaviors, which assure shared objectives, interchangeable interests and commonalities among employees(Minkov and Hofstede 2011).functionalist believes that main priority of collectivistic cultures is independence and cooperation and that organizational
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