Concepts And Assumptions While Conducting Research

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Researchers hold different value systems, concepts and assumptions while conducting research. These different perspectives can be described as paradigm. Cooper and White (2012) state that “a paradigm can be viewed as a set of logically related assumptions, concepts, or principles that tend to guide our thinking and the important assumptions that we have about how the world functions” (p. 15). In the field of education, there are two widely recognized research paradigms: qualitative and quantitative. As one of the most important research paradigms, quantitative paradigm dominated most part of the 20th century until the 1980s, when qualitative research paradigm started to become an alternative to quantitative research paradigm. These two…show more content…
From then on, mixed methods began to come to stage and have been implemented by researchers in social and educational fields.

Quantitative Research Methodology
Quantitative research investigates social phenomenon through the employment of statistics, mathematical procedures or computational measurement (Given, 2008). Quantitative methods are considered “deductive in nature, in the sense that inferences from tests of statistical hypotheses lead to general inferences about characteristics of a population” (Harwell, 2011, p. 149). Quantitative data are usually in the form of numbers, percentages or various types of statistics. Often times, quantitative research is aimed at testing hypotheses on the particular cases studied. Quantitative research is assumed more scientific since quantitative researchers believe that numerical and statistical data are unbiased, more reliable, and can be generalized to bigger population. In other words, quantitative research is defined as a design to “show how all of the major parts of the research project—the samples or groups, measures, treatments or programs, and methods of assignment—work together to try to address the central research questions” (Trochim & Land, 1982, p. 1). Conclusions are drawn from the analysis and interpretation of data collected from samples are further discussed by researcher(s) and decided by readers to which degree the findings are
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