Conditions & Warranty

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INTRODUCTION: The Sales of Goods Act 1893 provides the definition of ‘condition’ and ‘warranty’. During the period between 1893 to 1962 both ‘condition’ and ‘warranty’ was generally accepted that they were the only two types of terms which assist in ‘identifying the breaches which entitled the injured party to terminate the contract. In the turning point of 1962, a new type of term-intermediate term brought about a whole new page into the Law of Contract. Hong Kong Fir Shipping Co. Ltd vs Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha Ltd is the key case which owns the credit for this discovery. In the case, the ship owner hired out the Hong Kong fir, ‘being in every way fitted for ordinary cargo service’. The ship was delivered on 13 February 1957, sailing…show more content…
In case of a breach the party at fault is liable to pay compensation Section 12(1) of the act state that, “A stipulation in a contract of may be a condition or a warranty” explaining that all terms and stipulations of the contract of sale are not of equal important and also of same consequences, however, some of terms are so vital to the contract that their failure to fulfil would cause breach of contract as a whole. Such terms are known as “Conditions”. Further, a term which are not of so vital importance is known as “Warranty”. Under Section 12(4) which provides that “whether a stipulation in a contract of sale is a condition or a warranty depends in each case on the construction of the contract. A stipulation may be a condition though called a warranty in the contract”. Therefore, every contract is to be assessed in the light of circumstances including intention of the parties and also terminology used in the construction of the contract. CONDITIONS: Section 12(2) of the act defines a condition as “a stipulation essential to the main purpose of the contract, the breach of which gives rise to a right to treat the contract as repudiated.” Conditions is called an ‘express condition’ when a condition is expressed clearly in writing. A condition is a stipulation essential to the main purpose of the contract. It is very vital to the

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