Congenital Heart Diseases ( Chd )

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Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are defects in the heart that are present from birth and affect 8 in every 1,000 newborns each year (National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, 2011). Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common congenital disease of the heart (O’Hanlon and Pennell, 2009) and the most common cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) among apparently healthy athletes and younger generations (Maron, 1995; Maron and Maron, 2013). HCM is a condition in which there is abnormal thickening of the myocardium in the left ventricle (LV), also know as left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), where the heart is not dilated and there is no other systemic or cardiac cause (Maron et al 2003; Maron et al 2006). Although many patients are asymptomatic to HCM, some patient’s will present with, or develop progressive exercise intolerance, heart failure symptoms and SCD (Keren et al 2008).

The prevalence of HCM worldwide is 1:500 making it the most common heritable congenital heart disorder (O’Hanlon, 2010). Annual mortality rates for presenting patient’s range from <1% within the general community, to 3-6% from tertiary referral centres (Noureldin et al, 2012). This range is most likely due to the fact that tertiary centres are specialist centres, and patients suspected to have HCM would be referred straight to a tertiary centre. There is currently no evidence to suggest that incidence or mortality is affected by gender (Maron et al, 2002).

Obstructive and
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