Congenital Left Ventricular Outpouching ( Lvo )

1782 Words Apr 13th, 2016 8 Pages
Congenital left ventricular outpouching (LVO) is a rare disorder in which a confined protrusion arises from the left ventricular (LV) free wall. The terms LV aneurysm, LV diverticulum, double-chambered LV and LV accessory chamber have been used interchangeably in the literature [1–9], however anatomical differences do exist between these terms [10]. LV aneurysm is an expansible thin-walled, usually fibrotic myocardium and pericardium, pouch contracting in asynchrony with the LV and has a wide communication with the LV cavity. Conversely, an LV diverticulum has three cardiac wall layers (endocardium, myocardium and pericardium), contracts in synchrony with the LV and has a narrow connection to LV. LV accessory chamber presents an entity that combines some criteria of both aneurysm and diverticulum. Its wall is similar to a diverticulum but it has a wide communication with the LV as an aneurysm. Lastly, double-chambered left ventricle displays a combination of the above-mentioned characteristics.

A novel classification was recently introduced by Rad et al [11], which depends mainly on the LV geometry and proposes a type dependent outcome prediction. According to this classification, the LVO is termed double chamber left ventricle if the LV maintains the elliptical cavity shape. If the LV shape is distorted, LVO is classified into LVO type I when the outpouching has normal wall motion and thickness, type IIa when wall thickness is decreased, type IIb when…
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