1. “Collateral consequences” refers to all related and seemingly unintended consequences of something. What are the collateral consequences of mass incarceration, and how do they contribute to inequality? (Chapter 33 Bryan L. Sykes and Becky Pettit: “Mass Incarceration and Family Life” In Other Words: Virginia E. Rutter: “Doing Time = Doing Gender” (Girl w/ Pen!))
The United States’ ever-expanding prison and jail population has brought about many questions regarding the side-effects of mass incarceration, namely involving the effects on the children and families from which those incarcerated are removed. Regardless of the perspectives on the appropriate position of incarceration in the criminal justice system, imprisonment disrupts many positive and nurturing relationships between parents and their children. In fact, more than 1.7 million children have a parent who is incarcerated in a state or federal prison as of 2007 (Glaze & Maruschak, 2008). These youths are at risk for developing behavior and school problems in addition to insecure attachment relationships. Parental incarceration, which may also be coupled with economic disadvantage and inconsistent living arrangements (Geller, Garfinkel, Cooper, & Mincy, 2009) can be an extremely difficult experience for children. It should come as no surprise that families with children suffer economic strain and instability when a parent is imprisoned, considering how each parent in today’s world typically needs to set aside time to earn an income to support their family, and most are unable to support their homes on one income. While it may be considered intrusive to some to intervene in the lives of children and families with incarcerated parents, research has suggested that there are positive societal benefits to intervening in the lives of incarcerated parents and their
The vast societal effects from mass incarceration have caused an increasingly alienated population to form in the U.S., which can be broadly classified in the dual areas of lasting effects and impacts to the family unit. First, the lasting effects of high incarceration rates are that they impact the rights of the convict, particularly African Americans. For example, noted civil rights attorney Michelle Alexander posits that the long term effects of mass incarceration operate to deny black Americans the future right to volte, the ability to obtain public benefits, the possibility to sit on juries, and ultimately the opportunity to secure gainful employment (Steiker, 2011), Moreover, professor Alexander argues that this mass incarceration together with the prior Jim Crow laws and the past practice of slaery in the U.S. operate to ensure that black Americans remain s subordinate class of citizens defined primarily by their race (Steiker, 2011).
"Local faith-based and community organizations (FBCO) reentry programs can provide ex-prisoners with the compassion and services they need to thrive in the communities they are returning to. Placing ex-prisoners in steady employment that matches their abilities and needs is an important effort that helps ensure the safety of America’s streets and the successful integration of ex-prisoners into America’s communities. Recidivism is a vicious cycle of crime, prison, more crime, re-imprisonment, and so on. Statistics show that more than two-thirds of released prisoners will be charged with new crimes within three years following their release, and over half will be reincarcerated. According to criminal justice experts, an attachment to the labor force through stable employment, in concert with family and community
Ex-convicts are usually burdened by probation and community service, and may also be disqualified from receiving, “...Federally funded health and welfare benefits, food stamps, public housing, and federal educational assistance” (Graff 129). Despite having an alternative view on the reasons why mass incarceration is taking place, Stephanos Bibas shares the concern of ex-convicts permanently being labeled as second-class citizens. Within 3 years, 68% of ex-convicts were rearrested (Graff 129). Also, in 2000, two-thirds of parole violators that returned to prison violated by failing drug tests, failing to stay employed or missing meetings with their parole officers (Graff 130). Gilda Graff quotes from Michelle Alexander, “In this system of control, failing to cope well with one's exile status is treated like a crime” (Graff 130). The most noticeable issue in these harsh punishments put on ex-convicts is that the punishments directly affect people living in areas of high-poverty. The people whose families already suffer immensely from low-income and need government assistance are often denied it after petty crimes. This is a system that keep criminals as criminals, and forces them to commit more crimes after accepting the punishment for their previous
In Maryland, public assistance programs as well as housing programs are able to deny assistance to individuals with incarceration histories or convictions on their records. “The Corporation for Supportive Housing estimates that 10 to 12 percent of former inmates are homeless. Other studies put the count at between 15 and 27 percent” (Law). With such a large percentage of inmates being released to the streets, it is no wonder that rates of recidivism are so high.
2 million people fill the prisons and jails in the U.S. The U.S. locks up more people than any other nation and 2.3 million people are confined in a correctional facility. This is what mass incarceration is. After slavery ended the system began to support the guilty and rich rather than the innocent and poor. African Americans were also arrested for minor crimes as simple as looking at white men or women in the eyes could led them to getting arrested. Plea bargains created a frightening sigma in regard to fighting for their innocence. The lasting effect of mass incarceration begins with the idea with war on drugs. A rise in recreational drug use in the 1960s led to President Nixon’s focus on targeting substance abuse. After he declared the
For more than a decade, researchers across multiple disciplines have been issuing reports on the widespread societal and economic damage caused by America’s now-40-year experiment in locking up vast numbers of its citizens. (The Editorial Board)
Additionally, these overall rates of incarceration can be accounted for changes in policy throughout time. The justice system was not the same it was before. The fourth president of John Jay College of Criminal Justice of the City University of New York, Jeremy Travis, claimed in his book, “The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and Consequences,” that from the 1940’s to present day, lawmakers sought to change behavior and criminal policy year round. However, this led to an increase in pursuing and punishing the lawbreakers, mostly seen in the West, between all the levels of government, local, state, and federal government (Travis 105). For example, state and federal legislators signed laws intended to ensure that
Adjusting to life after incarceration can be a very long and difficult process to overcome. There are many obstacles people face when returning home for the first time in years. Most people generally come home to nothing and have to try to make a life out of it. As an ex-con you face stigma, lack of opportunities and the constant risk of recidivism. Recidivism is the ongoing cycle of incarceration. You continue to be in and out of prison because you cannot successfully re-transition into society. This topic is worth investigating because recidivism is a current problem in the United States and it usually takes place because the justice system fails to prepare their inmates for what life will be like. Rehabilitation is key and because there is a lack of that there is a lack of success in offenders returning home. Young adults should be aware of recidivism because they can easily be sucked into the system and this can happen to them. They can find themselves in a position where they end up in prison and fall victim to recidivism. Questions that will guide this research include:
To the mind of a criminal, it is very logical - although of course not ethical-- to steal rather than work because he thinks it is worth taking the risks for the profits he gets from stealing. These are individuals with "deviant" motivations. As a factor that tends to reduce crime, incarceration has two main effects: imprisonment and deterrence. The imprisonment reflects the fact that a person who is in jail cannot commit crimes against others members of society because of his position. In contrast, deterrence seems to function better because the person thinks about the potential consequences of their actions. This distinction has become critical to relate it with the so-called laws of "three strikes" which is sentencing repeated criminals
In conclusion, incarceration refers to a person who is housed in a correctional facility. This term is widely in compared to the word imprisonment. In addition, the time served as a inmate is determined by the law and judge. It is important to recognize that an inmate can be incarcerated based on his criminal action. He is then placed in a prison, jail or, Juvenile correctional facility. An inmate must serve either minimum sentence, maximum sentence, or mandatory
Imagine having a next door neighbor is an ex-convict; which is defined as “a former inmate in prison” (ex-con). According to Bonita Veysey, the editor of How Offenders Transform their lives ‘‘This year, over 600,000 people will be released from prison, and many millions will be returning to their communities from shorter stints in jails’’(2). With this statement, would you feel comfortable continuing to live in your neighborhood? Or immediately pack up your family and move else where. Ex-convicts have many challenges when released from prison which include: how society views them, finding employment, and how to overcome their past.
Illinois does not prosecute pregnant women who abuse illicit drugs. As an alternative to prosecution, Illinois has established a statue around education and treatment. That statue requires public health departments to conduct education programs to inform pregnant women of medical consequences of alcohol, drug and tobacco abuse. (Lisko, 1998) The State of Illinois also has rules around health care workers reporting the abuse to welfare agencies, which can result in child custody consequences for the mother.
I think that people who commit crimes aren’t bad people, but make bad choices in themselves. People should be rehabilitating the wrong doers instead of punishing them to become more violent. For example, teens make wrong decisions by deciding to hang out with the troubled teens. Teens model what their friends do and eventually become this person they’re not.