For psychologists, one of the more popular theories espoused is the trait approach to personality, or “the idea that people have consistent personality characteristics that can be measured and studied” (Kalat, 2002, 512). However there are several problems that arise. First, there are significant cross-cultural differences, so one set of personality traits for one culture may differ considerably for another. The next problem would concern the creation of a test that could accurately measure these traits. While psychologists have for the most part addressed these issues, I will focus on the latter of the two. There has been a
The historical use of the terms objective and projective to classify a personality test, and the problems with such classification.
Construct validity is the extent to which suggestion can be made from a broad view standpoint lining ideas to observations in the research to the hypothesis on which those ideas are based. Content validity reflect on a personal pattern of measurement because it transmit on people’s insight for measuring hypothesis, which is complicated to measure if the test-to retest type was to performed. Convergent is the degree
Personality tests are used to assist people in finding out a little about themselves. The test should not be taken as an exact match to what the person is. The person may have characteristics similar to the type, but they are not bound to that type. The 16 types are useful to help a person come to a conclusion regarding their strengths and weakness. Though the tests are not accurate and should not be taken as something serious, they don't reflect each person accurately.
Personality and aptitude tests are imperative in order to understand ourselves and allow people a way to classify different traits that might not be realized. These tests can be done and used so that people can rediscover and improve through self-reflection,
that of what is expected to see if the answers compare to that of what is expected. This allows for individuals to answer, as they desire to see if they are fit for the position. The aptitude test has various different types of categories that would be tested ensure that it is not being subjective. (“Aptitude Tests- Introduction” Psychometric success)
Data were presented as mean ± SEM. The data were analyzed by SPSS Version 17.0 statistic software package (Chicago, IL, USA). Two-tailed t tests were used to determine signiﬁcance between groups of sham and SCI groups. Values of P< 0.05 were considered
You mentioned that you believe it is important that the stimuli don't change when assessing personality, in your opinion, how do stimuli make a personality test an excellent reliability and validity?
Researchers prove these three types of validity by having a set of measures that is valid. Content validity measures how well the collected data represents the research question (Cooper & Schindler, 2011, 281). Criterion-related validity determines how well a set of data can estimate either reality in the present or future (Cooper & Schindler, 2011, 281-282). The best suggested way to measure this is to “administer the instrument to a group that is known to exhibit the trait” (Key, 1997). Construct validity determines the success in the measurement tool of validating a theory (Cooper & Schindler, 2011, 282-283). There is another less common validity factor called face validity, which determines if “managers or others accept it as a valid indicator” (Parker, 2003). In addition to the three categories of validity explained above, there are two types of validity to consider internal and external. Flaws within the study, such as design flaws or data collection problems, affect internal validity. Other factors that can affect internal validity including the size of population, task sensitivity, and time given for data collection. External validity is the extent to which you can generalize your findings to another group or other contexts (Henrichsen, Smith, & Baker, 1997). An example of this is having a study done over only male football players. This study might not have the external validity for female gymnasts due to the specific domain of the
The term personality is used to describe a representative of a person’s patterns in behavior, ways of thinking and feeling, and social traits. The American Psychology Association states that the study of personality is to understand the individual differences in personality characteristics as well as understanding the different parts of one’s personality that contribute to their whole self (Kazdin, 2000). One form of personality assessment is categorized as structured, also known as objective assessment. Objective assessment is a standardized self- report measure that typically comes in a forced- answer format (Hays, p. 256). This type of personality assessments helps clinicians gather data that reveals a person’s specific personality traits
Validity is an important aspect of the research design. For instance, in research the uses statistics as the primary form of measurement. Validity applies to the truth of a standard. A measure is valid, in general, when it (Renata, 2011, 1) includes what it devised to measure. Renata (2011) explained, "Internal and external validity are the two primary types of validity" (para. 1). However, both display diverse aspects of a study’s design and results.
There are four validity types that build on one another. Conclusion and internal refer to the observation on the bottom, the construct emphasizes the link between the bottom and top, the external is concerned about the range of theory on top.
A researcher may face threats to construct validity, which are the “quality of choices about the particular forms of the independent and dependent variables” (Packer, 2004). Accurately setting the independent and dependent variable are essential to avoid this threat. A researcher may face lack of reliability in both the independent and dependent variable, in that they vary too much from one occasion to another, and this will threaten construct validity (Packer, 2004). Reliability can also be at risk “when assessments are taken over time, performed by different people or the assessments are highly subjective” (Handley, n.d.). Researchers need to ensure that they are careful in minimizing these potential risks to reliability so that their data can be as accurate as possible (Handley,
In psychology, reliability is concerned with stability and consistency (Reynolds & Livingston, 2013). Reliability focuses on the context of measurement which can be influenced by endless factors, that can affect a score (Reynolds & Livingston, 2013). Such a concept is important for
Theory, “consisting of a systematic body of ideas about a particular topic or phenomenon (Cozby & Bates, 2012),” is arguably the most important part of research studies. The theory guides which assessment will be used to study which aspect of personality. The information