Consumer Behaviour (Kotler and Keller)

1250 Words5 Pages
Consumer behaviour is the study of how individuals, groups, and organizations select, buy, use, and dispose of goods, services, ideas or experiences to satisfy their needs and wants. Consumers are exposed to a myriad of marketing and other external stimuli on a daily basis for which the marketer has to consider consumer characteristics and consumer psychology to successfully position a product or service. Consumer characteristics include; culture, social and personal factors and consumer psychology include motivation, perception, learning and memory.

Culture is the underlying determinant of a person’s wants and behaviours. Our values are shaped by our cultural heritage for eg. Americans value individualism, freedom, youthfulness,
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Lifestyles are shaped partly by whether consumers are money constrained or time constrained. Companies aiming to serve money constrained consumers will create lower cost products and services whilst in some categories notably food processing companies targeting time constrained consumers need to be aware that these very same people want to believe they’re not operating within time constraints. This is referred to as the convenience involvement segment.

Marketers must also understand how four key psychological processes – motivation, perception, learning and memory – influence consumer responses. A consumer is motivated to act when a need is aroused to a sufficient level of intensity. According to Sigmund Freud’s theory psychological forces shaping people’s behaviour are largely unconscious and therefore that person cannot fully understand his or her own motivations. Cues such as product shape, size, weight, material, colour and brand name therefore need to be carefully considered. Abraham Maslow’s theory positions that human needs are arranged in a hierarchy of needs and when a person successfully satisfies his needs at one level he will pursue the needs at the next level. These levels include physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs. Finally, Frederick Herzberg’s two factor theory posits that consumers are influenced by
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