Contemporary Psychodynamic Authors

1984 WordsFeb 18, 20188 Pages
Contemporary psychodynamic authors define defenses as unconscious mental processes that function to defend against extreme anxiety (e.g. Valliant, 1994). Moreover, defenses are observed as being both protectors against unconscious feelings and relational and cognitive behaviours that protect the self (Cooper, 1998). Currently there is no consensus as to the number of defenses that exist however, in ‘The Ego and the mechanisms of Defense’ Ana Freud (1936/1986) discusses ten. However, subsequently there has expansion of recognised defences (Kramer 2013). Although, authors vary on the number of defenses that are present, there is a largely an agreement on the role of defenses. The function of these defense mechanisms is to modify internal psychological conditions such as emotions and thoughts by changing the meaning or implication of perceived threats (Kramer 2013). Defenses are utilised differently in borderline personality and comparable disorders and therefore necessitate accurate identification for therapeutic appropriate intervention (Cooper, 1998). Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a severe and dominant psychiatric condition featuring affective instability, marked impulsivity, and substantial deficits in the ability to work and sustain meaningful relationships (Hadjipavlou and Ogrodniczuk 2010). In addition, BPD individuals suffer with deep fear of abandonment, identity conflicts and paranoid ideations (Hadjipavlou and Ogrodniczuk 2010). Further, BPD individuals
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