Coping With Pain

Decent Essays
Coping with pain and adverse experiences of physical conditions (Physical symptoms)
Pain is defined as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage” (Merskey et al., 1979). The medical conditions are various in different types of pain; acute (procedure-related pain, postoperative pain, trauma-associated pain, acute pain due to chronic illness), recurrent, and chronic pain.
Pain present unique challenges for health care professionals because individual gets differently so the clinician should avoid to discrete a medical and a psychiatric etiology for the pain. An integrative biopsychosocial approach to assessment, formulation and multidisciplinary management
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- Developmental
- Medical and pain history - Passive coping strategies: behavioral disengagement, self-isolation, catastrophizing
- Anxiety sensitivity
- Poor self esteem - Family functioning: disorganized, unclear communication, high conflict or negative affect
- Pain model in family
Precipitating - Medical and pain - Pain perception
- Stress - conflict with others
Perpetuating - Pain symptom: Intensity Characteristics, Distribution
- Comorbid symptoms: Fatigue, Functional status, Quality of life, Sleep disturbance - Emotional functioning: Depression, Anxiety, Anger
- Cognitions: Coping strategies, Catastrophizing, Self-efficacy to manage pain - Family functioning,
- Parental catastrophizing
- Parental anxiety
-Parental depression
- Overprotective parental
-School functioning: limited social activity, poor interaction with peers
Protective - Good IQ - Control coping: acceptance, cognitive reappraisal, distraction - Good family and peer support
- Good quality of
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The results for the effects of different intervention types (CBT, Relaxation, and Biofeedback) on pain, disability, and emotional functioning at post-treatment. All three interventions yielded positive effects on clinically significant pain reduction, with odds ratios of 4.13 (CBT), 9.93 (Relaxation), and 23.34 (Biofeedback). Disability was only available in studies of CBT, with a small and non-significant effect (SMD = −0.24, 95% CI −0.51, 0.03). Emotional functioning was included in 5 CBT trials (SMD = −0.09, 95% CI −0.40, 0.21) and one Biofeedback trial (SMD = −0.15, 95% CI −0.91, 0.61), producing similar small and non-significant results (Eccleston C et al,
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