Clean coal technology usually addresses atmospheric problems resulting from burning coal. Historically, the primary focus was on sulfur dioxide and particulates, since it is the most important gas in the causation of acid rain. More recent focus has been on carbon dioxide (due to its impact on global warming) as well as other pollutants. Concerns exist regarding the economic viability of these technologies and the timeframe of delivery, potentially high hidden economic costs in terms of social and environmental damage, and the costs and viability of disposing of removed carbon and other toxic matter. More, the byproducts of coal power production range from fly ash sludge ponds full of mercury, arsenic, and sulfur in unlined ponds that can leak into the water supply.
Coal ash is known to contain a number of different toxic metals, the exact content dependent upon the coal it is formed from. Containing this potential pollution hazard is an expensive problem, as approximately 75% of all ash generated is stored in landfills. In these sites, rainwater can leach out toxic metals including mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, molybdenum, lead and selenium. As over 500 million tons of ash are produced each year, there’s an increasing environmental health hazard to the surrounding water systems of these landfills. Pollution can spread to municipal water systems and potentially poison humans. As such, figuring out a better solution to deal with the unused coal ash is of significant importance. Current uses of coal ash primarily include the formation of concrete due the pozzolanic properties of coal
As we go throughout life, we use various kinds of energy sources for our needs. Whether it be from solar energy to wind energy, there is a multitude of sources that allow us to do the things we do each and every day. Throughout the world, however, coal and nuclear power have risen to the
Tens of business closed up, which directly affected a large number of households. The coal mining operations companies also left environmental contaminants in the environment. Pollutions from coal mining have a direct effect on water, land air. Some of the pollutants contaminate ground water, surface water and impact on other land-uses. Besides the slope failure and explosion, environmental impact from coal mining causes erosion; leachates production, which seeping into ground water, and dust pollution. Heavy metals compound like lead, cadmium and arsenic dominates coal mining sites (Bhuiyan, Parvez, Islam, & Dampare, 2010). These metals are toxic to plant and animal. Some absorb some of these dissolved metals and introduce them into the food circle. When rainwater mixes with coal waste, the runoffs becomes acidic, which reduce PH of surface waters. (Komitas, 2001) Population inhaling coal dust suffers black lung disease and other complication like lung cancer, and heart failure (Finkelman & Orem, 2002). Coal mining in uranium mines is another source of radioactive exposure. Another environmental impact from coal mined lands includes emission of greenhouse gasses. Future land redevelopment in grand Cache, must deal with this issues before development could take
Coal’s reputation has become as black as coal itself, but without it the quality of life that hundreds of millions of people enjoy today would not be possible. Coal has been used in many ways throughout history and it will continue to be a vital resource in supplying the energy needed to fuel an energy hungry world. Research cited throughout this paper suggests that coal is an energy source for the future because it is stable and reliable with abundant reserves, it is the most affordable and efficient fuel source used to produce power, and because of new clean coal technologies, coal can be burned with minimal to no damage to the environment.
For the 300 MW steam plant currently under analysis, steam is required at 723 K (450 0C), 10.34 MPa and a mass flow rate of 330 kg/s. The steam turbine extracts 312.5 MW of power at 84 percent adiabatic efficiency. With the generator loss at 4 percent, the electrical output is 300 MWe. A mechanical pump is used to pump the water into the heat exchanger where it absorbs the heat from the helium turbine exhaust before entering the steam turbine. Design point specifications are given in Table 4-1.
As well as heat, burning coal produces ash and exhaust gases. The ash falls to the bottom of the boiler and is removed by the ash systems (3). It is usually then sold to the building industry and used as an ingredient in various building materials, like concrete.
-Coal is made up of fragile plant matter, and goes through a lot of changes to becomes a black and shiny substance burned as fuel.
The coal samples used in this study are Yallourn (YL) and Morwell (MW) coal, two
The achieved coal is mainly composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (nitrogen and sulphur being minor elements) which are combustible in nature, and it also consists of impurities (10 to 40%) existing in the form of clay, shale, quartz, feldspar and limestone. As the coal enters the furnace, the combustible elements of the coal are scalded at the elevated temperatures, whereas the mineral impurities of the coal chemically recombine to produce crystal clear parts of the molten ash. Later, the molten ash enters the flue gas and by lowering the temperature rapidly the ash turns into spherical, glassy particles. Furthermost these particles fly out along with the flue gas stream and hence the names fly ash. Finally, electrostatic precipitator collects all the fly ash
i) Combustion in the furnace (for heating): Most furnaces burn fuel oil or natural gas as fuel. During this combustion process, oxygen combines with fuel molecules to produce water, carbon dioxide and heat. The heat is what is passed through combustion chamber and provides heating. To maximize the efficiency of fuel burning furnaces, it is important that the right amount of products are used so there is no excess product remaining after the combustion reaction. In the combustion reaction, in furnaces, the air to fuel ratio is used. It is the ratio of the mass of air required to completely combust a given mass of fuel. The use of chemical calculations and quantities in this process allows maximum performance of furnace for heating, while saving money.
Coal is a combustible black or blackish brown sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or seams. The harder form such as Anthracite may be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. Coal from different stratigraphic sequence differs from each other in terms of their chemical composition and physical properties. These differences may arise due to the probable difference in the supply material or the difference in depositional environment of the coal. The study of these coal properties provide and improved understanding of the origin and the depositional environment of the coal along with the grade of coal produced during such depositional environment.
The journal concluded that the reduction in permeability of coal maybe attributes to the role of coal matrix expansion. CO2 gets preferentially adsorbed onto the surface of the coal. At the same time, adsorption induces swelling at the time of coal exposure to the gas. The increase of injection of gas will cause the decline in permeability is belongs to the fracture spacing is not completely closed and the movement of gas cause swelling. However, the closure of fractures, a flow with increase permeability at higher injection pressure occurs at the highest confining pressure.. This is because the opening of fracture by increases the fracture apertures and this can enable easier flow (The University of Alabama. College of Continuing Studies, College of engineering, 2004).
In today’s world, coal is the most commonly used fossil fuel. The coal present in the Pike River Coal Mine had some distinctive qualities. It was bright, lustrous coking coal with several properties that was sought after by the international steel makers. They used coke as a source of fuel for blasting furnaces and carbon was used to bind with iron to produce steel. Therefore, Pike coal’s unique property of producing low ash and high fluidity made it potentially valuable resource.
In today’s world with all of the different forms of energy being utilized and accessible to us, the debate has risen about which form is best for the world. It is widely known that the use of coal is one of the power houses in society and it contributes towards the development of the world and also contributes to the abuse aspect. Some issues and problems that are attached to burning a dirty resource does not only include pollution of our air and attributes to global warm-ing, but also it has a great impact on the negative health effects on human beings. There are only a couple of positive things you can say about coal, and those two things are that it is very effi-cient and it is very cheap. With coal’s efficiency, it is highly sought