In 1859, the first oil well was dug, however, the gasoline had no use until the invention of the automobile (EIA, 2014). Nowadays, gasoline is classified as a refinery product and is produced as three types: Unleaded Regular, Premium and Super-Premium (Gary, J. et al, 2007). The first one is most common between automobiles, it is a byproduct of crude oil with an 87 octane rating and a highly flammable material. It is also environmentally-friendly and has less hazardous to health due to no lead compounds. Premium Gasoline is less polluted due to its detergent additives that make engines cleaner. It shares similar characteristics…show more content… To improve the gasoline quality and supply, other methods are used:
- Polymerization: converts gaseous olefins, such as propylene and butylene, into larger molecules in the gasoline range.
- Isomerization: converts straight-chain hydrocarbons to branched-chain hydrocarbons.
- Alkylation: combines an olefin and a paraffin such as isobutene.
- Reforming: rearranges a molecular structure using heat or catalyst (Inventors, 2014).
A test engine called Research Octane Number (RON) grades the gasoline performance (Torque, 2014). The higher the octane number is, the greater the fuel’s resistance is to knocking. Knocking happens when the air/fuel mixture detonates too early and decreases the engine efficiency (EXXON, 2014). The Motor Octane Number (MON) simulates more severe operation that might be incurred at high speed or high load. An average of RON and MON or R+M/2 is the octane of a gasoline (Refining Online, 2014).
Gasoline are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons (Gary et al, J., 2007) additives, and blending agents. The composition of gasoline depends on the refinery processes, the crude oil used, the overall balance of product demand, and the especially the product specifications. The typical composition of gasoline hydrocarbons (% volume) is: 4-8% alkanes; 2-5% alkenes; 25-40% isoalkanes; 3-7% cycloalkanes; l-4% cycloalkenes; and 20-50% total aromatics (0.5-2.5% benzene). Table 1 shows