Cranial Nerves Origin

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Cranial nerves

Maram Hussien Alzahrani

Cranial nerves:

The cranial nerves are a set of 12 paired nerves that arise directly from the brain. The first two nerves (olfactory and optic) arise from the cerebrum, whereas the remaining ten emerge from the brain stem.
The names of the cranial nerves relate to their function and they are also numerically identified in roman numerals (I-XII).
Origin of the Cranial Nerves
There are twelve cranial nerves in total. The olfactory nerve (CN I) and optic nerve (CN II) originate from the cerebrum.
Cranial nerves III – XII arise from the brain stem (Figure 1). They can arise from a specific part of the brain stem (midbrain, pons or medulla), or from a junction between two parts:
• Midbrain – the trochlear nerve (IV) comes from the posterior side of the midbrain. It has the longest intracranial
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• General visceral sensory (GVS) – general sensation from viscera.
• Special somatic sensory (SSS) – senses derived from ectoderm (sight, sound, balance).
• Special visceral sensory (SVS) – senses derived from endoderm (taste).
Motor (efferent) Modalities:
• General somatic motor (GSM) – skeletal muscles.
• General visceral motor (GVM) – smooth muscles of gut and autonomic motor.
• Special visceral motor (SVM) – muscles derived from pharyngeal arches.

Davis, Matthew C.; Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Bosmia, Anand N.; Tubbs, R. Shane; Shoja, Mohammadali M. "The naming of the cranial nerves: A historical review". Clinical Anatomy 27 (1): 14–19.
^ Jump up to:a b Mallatt, Elaine N. Marieb, Patricia Brady Wilhelm, Jon (2012). Human anatomy (6th ed. media update. ed.). Boston: Benjamin Cummings. pp. 431–432.

Fitzgerald, M.J. Turlough FitzGerald, Gregory Gruener, Estomih Mtui (2012). Clinical neuroanatomy and neuroscience (6th ed.). [Edinburgh?]: Saunders/Elsevier. p.
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