Crim 301 Literature Review Essay

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Effectiveness of In-School Programs and After School programs
A Review of the Literature

California State University Los Angeles
Criminology 301
Professor Jenny
June 7, 2012

In recent years, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) noticed the increase in the number of teens between the ages of nine to seventeen being involved with gangs in the United States. While most people would agree that gang membership is an individual choice, scholars believe that it is more important to shift the focus of these programs from an individual level to a community level. This literature review examines a few of the prevention programs the OJJDP have implemented in the school’s curriculum and after-school
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The program is only effective so long as the teenager allows it to be. In other words, growing up in an undeveloped community and a poor family could be contributing factors towards pushing adolescent teens towards violence, drugs, and gangs. However, it is likely that if the teen is able to shift their focus towards the positive aspects in their life, they can overcome the difficulties. I say this because my cousin was raised in a good household, yet he chose to be involved with the wrong crowd even after his parents raised him in a good neighborhood, with a good education, and participated in many extracurricular activities. After sending him off to boot camp to try and straighten him up, he still returned to his gang in which he calls his second family. Therefore, I feel biased towards the effectiveness of these programs. However, I will remain objective in researching this topic. I will look into all contributing factors and all of the preventive techniques in assessing the problem. I will also compare both programs and analyze the two programs in depth. I will look into all the factors and theories contributing to why teens would join gangs. Also I will evaluate the effectiveness of the program based on my research and not my personal experience.
IMPORTANCE OF PREVENTION PROGRAMS AND THE LITERATURE REVIEW With the increase in the number of teenagers being involved with gang violence and memberships, scholars agree
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