Crime and Victimology Essay

2155 Words Aug 15th, 2012 9 Pages
From the beginning of time there have always been crimes against persons. People went by the saying “An eye for an eye”. You stole from your neighbor, they stole from you. You hurt someone, they hurt you. It wasn’t until the 1940’s people started taking a closer look into these crimes against person, which they later called victimology. This paper will look into victimology and their theories as we go back into the past and how victimology is now.

Victimology: A Look into the Past
The study of victimology dates back to the early 1940’s. Marvin Wolfgang was one of the first victimologists. To fully understand victimology is to understand what a victim is. A victim is a person that has suffered physical or emotional harm
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A medium risk victim are really lower risk victims but was in the wrong place at the wrong time. A medium risk person could be a person that could be at the bank during a hold-up.
Low risk victims are victims with a lifestyle that would not normally put them in danger. Low risk victims do not engage in risky behavior such as doing drugs, they are aware of their surroundings and stay away from danger.
Equivalent group hypothesis suggests that victims and offenders are one and the same. That they are both part a high-risk lifestyle.
Proximity hypothesis says that victims who live near crime are putting themselves at risk of becoming a victim. Someone who makes a little more than their neighbor can easily be a target of some sort of theft.
The last theory, routine activities, has three variables. The first variable is the availability of target, the lack of guardianship, and the presence of motivated offenders. This means that there are offenders out there and their victim will be those who are unsuspecting and those without any sort of guardianship.
Victim offender-relationships are defined as the victim and offender knowing each other before the victimization occurred. Most of these types are usually associated with rape and domestic abuse cases. The offender is probably a husband/wife, mother/father, sibling or close family friend.

Victim-criminal justice system relates to how the

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