Identify and discuss the societal trends that will impact the criminal justice system over the next ten years.
Female police officers have been saddled with a stigma ever since they were allowed to join the force with male officers. Female police officers performance and ability to do their job and perform well is often questioned because they are women. Female officers are not given the same respect as male officers because of their gender; however, they bring different skills and assets to the profession that male officers do not. Female officers are less likely to use force or become aggressive because they have better communication skills and empathize. However, female officers will resort to using aggressive behaviors or force when necessary. Superior officers and male patrol officers feel that women are only on the force because it is a matter of social integration and an HR requirement. They feel that this is a man’s profession, and women have no business trying to be a part of it.
There are many stereotypes that women in the law enforcement field have to face. In order to recruit more women into policing, law enforcement agencies should attempt to overcome the idea that policing is a "male-oriented profession". This paper will cover parts of the history of women police officers, some views and stereotypes of the female officer, job related issues, life outside of the workforce and job satisfaction.
In recent years, recruitment and retention of police officers has been a pain point for many departments across the nation. Odd and inflexible hours, uncompetitive pay, para-militaristic organizational structures, and a negative public perception have all worked to diminish the pool of applicants interested in careers in law enforcement. Add to the mix the sexist “brotherhood” police culture, emphasis on masculinity and aggression, and the nearly non-existent opportunities for advancement for women, and over half of the eligible workforce has been discouraged from even considering a career in law enforcement. In 2013, women comprised just over 57% of the labor force, but accounted for only 13% of sworn police officers (USDOL, 2013; Crooke, 2013). Not only are women sorely underrepresented in the field of law enforcement, but those who are employed experience discrimination at the hands of their supervisors and coworkers, and as a result, the attrition rate for women is often much higher than that of their male counterparts. Departments should pledge dedication to recruiting and retaining more female officers, as research indicates that not only do females perform just as well as males in patrol positions, but they also have a unique set of advantages to offer agencies when employed in law enforcement. In order to improve the recruitment and retention of females into policing roles, departments must determine the biggest deterrents for women who are considering the pursuit
For the past 50 years, America’s criminal justice system has encountered several significant changes dealing with courts and policing. According to Marion and Oliver (2006), the historical Supreme Court rulings like Mapp v. Ohio and Miranda v. Arizona mold the way courts and law enforcement handle individuals charged with committing crimes. This paper will discuss the evolution of courts and law enforcement reflects the diverse and changing need for today’s population which is first importance, the urgency for cooperation and communication among criminal justice agencies and law enforcement within the country. Individuals must
Our criminal justice system is complex and multi-faceted. When people talk about criminal justice reform, they are actually referring to a number of distinct issues and problems. On a national level, the focus on reform can be seen as a recognition that the “tough on crime” legislation that was all the rage in the 1980s and 1990s – mandatory minimums, “three strikes” laws, enhanced sentences for drug crimes to name a few examples – created more problems than they were designed
Terrorism has never been in the States; only in third world countries. Since 9/11-2001 is has been a reality and ongoing nightmare and hit close to home. The attack on the World Trade Centers in New York was a wakeup call. United States has been on high alert ever since, waiting for the next possible Terrorists attack. This paper will explain why terrorism is a law enforcement concern as well as how terrorism is considered a crime. At last the paper will state some recommendations that the American Criminal Justice should do, to better prepare for future crimes.
Cochran, J. C., & Warren, P. Y. (2012, May). Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Differences in Perceptions of the Police. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 28(2), 206-227.
Gender inequality still plays a huge role in today’s society. Women comprise only a small percentage of the local law enforcement agencies across the nation. Women have been a part of law enforcement since the 20th century but have only been noticed within the last 40 years. Back in the 1970’s women rarely held positions in law enforcement and if they did it was mainly clerical/desk positions. Even though the amount of women in law enforcement today has increased, women still only make up roughly around 13 percent of the law enforcement work force (Public). Women can make such an impact in the Law Enforcement field if given a fair chance but they may face many problems when doing so. Some say that women don’t belong, while others suggest
Ever since the founding of Police Departments, women have comprised only a small percentage. Back then, women accounted for about 2% of sworn police personnel. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, women today represent about “13% of police agencies nationwide”. Despite legislation laws to integrate more women into policing, they are still under represented in law enforcement agencies. Although things seem to be improving for women, gender equality and full assimilation into policing is still being fought by these women who wish to break into this male dominated profession. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the obstacles women in policing still face and to point out the many strides women in policing have made since their
The role of police women has come a long way since they were finally acknowledged into the field of law enforcement. Nevertheless law enforcement still struggles to hire and retain female officers for a number of reasons. There have been many guidelines put in place, but female officer’s still face discrimination that discourage them away or hinder their promotion opportunities. Police departments are under major pressure from the public to hire more female officers. The literature review shows a female officers’ struggle in gaining success in a male dominated career. Law enforcement has been considered as a man’s job and now that women have proven they are capable of the job, police men are not as accepting. Research shows that police men’s views on women in the police force are resilient to the fact that women are able to perform all tasks of the job. This paper will discuss what obstacles women have faced in the police role and also provide recommendations to help hire and retain these female officers.
The Criminal Justice Field is a broad field with many opportunities for employment. As society changes and our crime rate increases, there are more opportunities for
Women are made to feel inadequate in comparison to their male counterparts due to the militaristic image that has dominated the profession. Although research has proven that women officers are as effective as their male counterparts, women continually face open discrimination inside the department. Promotions for women are limited despite an ever increasing need for women to fill supervisory positions. Women identify the promotion as image enhancement for the department and not performance based; perceiving that other officers would not respect this advancement for its merits. Minorities also face the same barriers despite legal advancements to the contrary. To ensure the future of law enforcement, barriers and biases must be broken. Women and minorities should be viewed as valuable assets and equals in the department and equal opportunities based on merit should be
For many years, more and more women are starting to have an interest in entering the world of law enforcement. Women want the same rights as men and want to show the world that they can do any job they want to participate in. They are choosing not listen to the stereotypes that society puts on their gender. With females entering in as police officers, the criminal justice field is starting to get more attention with this continually increasing number of females. In the field of law enforcement, the role of women is becoming a hot topic due to their different gender roles and challenges they have to face, but with every pro of women in law enforcement, there are cons of their work as well.
The role of women in policing has been traditionally very limited. The major reason behind this is because the men in control of the police departments reflect general attitudes of a large part of their communities. They believe that women should only be used in few positions that require juvenile work. These attitudes have led to the creation of the obstacles that women pursuing a career in policing face. Many police men have outlooks of women that are offensive and degrading. During numerous interviews with police men in the 1970’s many male prejudices were expressed. “I believe in male supremacy” said a chief in a major city, “I wouldn’t mind having a few good looking women around to help the men’s morale” said the head of patrol of another major department. (Milton, 1972) Women have experienced workplace issues such as sexual harassment, discrimination and lack of role models. (Milton, 1972) For example, police men at the LAPD had formed an organization called Men against Women. (Wells et al, 2005) It was for the purpose of harassment, intimidation, and even criminal activity against police women. (Wells et al, 2005) Women have had it rough being in the police department, they would sometimes be held to a higher level of performance and were not given equal consideration for specialty jobs. (Wells et al, 2005) It was found that police men wanted a partner who was tough and would fight and back them up. There were instances where police men would fake illness to avoid