CRIME IS A SOCIAL CONSTRUCT Crime is the product of the social structure; it is embedded in the very fibres of society. In this essay, I aim to explore different theories as to why crime exists within society and how we as a society therefore construct it. Crime is a social
Reactive policing is the response of the police to individual or group aid throughout the community. It is usually referred to as an immediate response to calls as well as follow-up investigations. Proactive policing involves the action of police to obtain information about crime in a community and develop strategies
Reiman and Leighton comprehensively begin the discussion of crime by outlining their main objectives, establishing the immediate problems surrounding crime control in America, and setting the groundwork for their premises. In recent years, the crime rate in the United States has declined. This decline is generally attributed to ‘tough on crime’ and mass incarceration policies, but the authors are quick to assert that other variables--economic, social-- are greater contributors to this decrease, with the ‘imprisonment binge’ only actually contributing a small amount to the decline. These strict crime enforcement policies might have a small impact on crime prevention, but criminologists are concerned with the potential effect such policies might have on criminal justice procedures--promoting profit rather than safety-- and endangering citizens’ rights (particularly those considered minorities).
Throughout crime in Australia, a noticeable increase in crime occurred between the 1970’s to the 1990’s but has declined to a stable rate of crime which is similar trend in America. However, crime itself is often complex to define due to the variety of crime. Therefore, it is difficult to accurately measure crime and if crime cannot be measured efficiently and it proposes concerns of whether crime in Australia is stable or not. Although Australia’s system of collecting crime data is striving to be as accurate as possible, the media will often manipulate the data which misleads the Australian public of crime stability. Inclusively, through gaining an understanding of defining crime, accurately measuring data and comparing Australia’s crime data
The purpose of this essay is to discuss whether a perspective of social harm is more advantageous and useful over that of crime. In order to explore these advantages, this essay will look at the aetiology of crime from a legal perspective; which is arguably very narrow and individualistic in nature. As well as from a perspective of social harm, which is possibly more progressive as it broadens an understanding of ‘crime’ over that of many other serious harms.
Moving along, one of the biggest issues and trends facing law enforcement today and in the future is the use of technology. Today, police organizations have access to a wide range of technological tools, and they are continually advancing and improving. Some of these include records management systems, computer-aided dispatch, GPS technology, license plate readers, biometrics (facial recognition software, for example), crime mapping via geographical information systems, and less-than-lethal weapons (Tasers, beanbag rounds, tear gas,
Unfortunately, the financial trend that has been seen in policing will likely continue for the foreseeable future, which will not only limit the ability to confront these new critical issues, but will likely exacerbate them as well (Police Executive, 2013). It is also foreseeable that new state efforts to combat their overall economic struggles will serve as a critical issue with adverse policing affects as well. More and more states continue to modify their early release policies, putting criminals back onto the streets sooner and in greater numbers than ever before, which has caused
Although crime has been around for ages, we only started collecting crime data around the 1930’s. Crime statistics show a lot about a country, state, county, etc. Crime can be linked to the environment, behavior of others, and personal experiences, it all depends on how the person deals with the hand they are dealt. Crime data is collected from three sources, which are uniform crime reports (UCR), national incident based reporting system (NIBRS), and national crime victimization survey (NCVS).
Criminal Law Foundations Evaluation CJA 484 – Criminal Justice Administration Capstone Jacinto C. Rincon June 24, 2013 David Mailloux With a great deal of debate the design of the United States along with the lay out by the founders of the country who took their roll in laying down the “rules” of the United States of America very seriously. The Articles of Confederation, the Bill of Rights, and the US Constitution lay the floor work of a layer of protection afforded to all United States Citizens. Each of the doctrines provides a step towards the written words that have granted many men and women protection from persecution as well as freedoms not received in other parts of the world. The last piece of the three historical
Criminal Justice Trends Evaluation Paper Jerry J Lynch Jr February 20, 2012 CJA/394 - Contemporary Issues and Futures in Criminal Justice Darren Gil, Faculty University of Phoenix Criminal Justice Trends Evaluation The criminal justice field is an ever evolving field. As today’s technology changes so does the way the criminal justice field interacts with that technology. As our society changes the technology that we use will also be altered to fit the situation. The barriers that come along can affect how the criminal justice field interprets what to do next. The basis of the criminal justice system is to protect and serve the community as a whole. Keeping up with the changes in society is a vital part of our
Crime has always been, and always will be a factor in society. It has existed since ancient times. The first recorded laws were “Hammurabi’s Laws”. A set of rules engraved in a large pillar in the middle of the Sumerian city-state of Babylon. Back then the punishments were simple. If you stole something, then your hand was cut off. In the modern day our laws are not so simple. Now a days something minor like theft, or minor drug possession could land you a harsher sentence than embezzling millions of dollars. Today the laws are dictated by a scared people and a justice system that doesn’t do its job. The punishments for crimes often do not fit the crime committed. More often than not one’s social status can directly impact the sentence one would receive.
The criminal justice system is a group of institutions that work together to protect a society, prevent and control crime, and maintain justice; enforcing the laws regulated by society. As the years have gone by and society has evolved; so have the criminal justice system and its methods to accomplish its role in society. This short analysis will evaluate the main facts that have been affecting the criminal justice system for decades and have influenced the evolution the justice system is enduring in a changing society (Muraski, 2009). Amongst the changes in the system, we will discuss the effect the changes have had on the citizens and how their perceptions have evolved as well.
During this essay, I will be discussing recorded crime statistics and victimisation surveys as they are our primary techniques of measuring levels and trends of crime. After briefly explaining what is meant by these terms, I will seek to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses in order to question the extent
Crime exists everywhere in the world – in rural and urban areas in many countries, in the East and West, and among all types of people. This has led many government officials, especially those in urban areas, to focus largely on the reduction of crime among their respective constituencies and has led others to speculate on the factors that influence the amount of crime and how those factors can be controlled. Crime has been around since man and there is no doubt that it will continue to be around, until there is an existence of a perfect world. But for now, we
After many decades elapsed, nowadays, the quality of human life is growing better. Human beings always search and invent new things in order to meet their needs. There are not only changes in the way that people dress and behave, but also there are many changes in forms of entertainment. In the past when technologies had not developed much, people usually entertained by getting together to dance, sing, or listen to music; many of them went to a small bar in the community to drink or play cards. Today is completely distinct from the time in the past. With innovative science and modern technologies, the entertainment has become easier and more convenient for all people. Everyone can relax and amuse themselves wherever and whenever with modern electronic devices such as cell phone, tablet, LCD TV, laptop, etc. Therefore, technology has become part of our life. Many people say that we could not do anything without technology; it helps people to make work easier. In fact, technology not only impacts our daily lives, but it also has a strong influence on the criminal justice system. If law enforcement officers apply technology to their investigations, it will assist to make the investigations less difficult and more efficient. So, what has the technology already helped to make an improvement in the criminal justice field, and how has it impacted on the law enforcement?