Medical/Surgical Intensive Care Unit
Historical Trends in Nursing
Critical Care Nursing
Critical care nursing can be traced back to the battlefield and recovery room of the earlier decades and has evolved into the modern intensive care units today. The early 1950s through the 1990s is an era in which unpredicted and radical changes occurred in the care of all patients with the development and growth of intensive/critical care units in hospitals. The reasons for initiating these units was multi-factorial and complex; the factors included the acute shortage of civilian registered nurses (RNs) during and following World War II, innovative surgical procedures developed in caring for wounded servicemen that later carried…show more content… His last article on the value of lowering body temperature to preserve cerebral function in patients after resuscitation from cardiac arrest was published a month before he died [ (Bryan-Brown, 2004) ] Max Harry Weil developed the crash cart, computerized vital-statistics monitors, and the “stat” laboratory diagnosis [ (Miller, 2011) ]. He was also one of the pioneers of the heart catheterization and the automated CPR machine [ (Miller, 2011) ]. He lobbied to put television cameras on the medical helicopters to assist with remote diagnosis. He taught CPR to nonmedical individuals and he put automatic defibrillators in public buildings. He trained thousands of nurses and doctors in critical care medicine. In the last article that he wrote on the evolution of critical care medicine he wrote, “The reality is the modern hospital is becoming one large Intensive Care Unit” [ (Miller, 2011) ].
Up to the 1950s, the iron lung, that used negative pressure, was being used to treat patients in respiratory distress and the treatment of polio. Bjorn Ibsen changed the management of ventilation by instituting intubation into the trachea which provided positive pressure ventilation. This also helped prevent aspiration of oral secretions. Positive pressure ventilation became popular after WWII. The intensive care