The issue at hand in these articles is the evidence for the development of bipedalism in hominids. Bipedalism seems to be one of the most important factors in the evolution of mankind and therefore the surrounding debate is rife with various hypotheses as to the background of this development in hominid evolutionary history. Although each of the three articles reviewed in this essay make different arguments, each seem to be cogent in their own way and do seem to complement each other. The first of which is C. Owen Lovejoy 's Human Origins.
The Australopithecine are some of the earliest known hominids and they embody many characteristics that are associated with bipedalism. Bipedalism is a highly specialized and unusual form of primate locomotion that sets modern humans apart from all other living primates as we are the only extant obligate bipeds. Many evolutionary biologists and paleoanthropologists have devoted innumerable research hours to attempting to understand this unique form of locomotion and how it evolved. A number of interdependent morphological adaptations occurred over a long period of time to solve challenges posed by habitual bipedalism. As a result, there are obvious differences that exist between early and late hominin species.
Bipedalism was the first evolutionary change to define the hominid lineage. It was a major evolutionary change that changed the way we move. Bipedalism is the condition of using two feet for standing and walking. Before bipedalism emerged we were walking on all fours just as many animals do presently. Bipedal locomotion dates back to 7 million years ago with one of the candidates which is Sahelanthropus tchadensis. The other two candidates for the earliest bipedal hominid are Orrorin tugenesis, and Genus Ardipithecus. This evolutionary change brings about several benefits such as being better adapted to live on savannas, having freed hands, more efficient for travel, and better regulation of body temperature. However, similar to many evolutionary changes, Bipedalism comes with “costs” or disadvantages. These disadvantages include our loss of speed, and more stress on lower body joints including the spine.
Bipedalism is a highly specialized and unusual form of primate locomotion that sets modern humans apart from all other living primates as we are the only extant obligate bipeds. Many evolutionary biologists and paleoanthropologists have devoted innumerable research hours to this unique form of locomotion. While much of the extinct taxa within Hominidae were bipedal, but the degree to which they were bipedal remains the subject of considerable debate. The significant discoveries of fossil hominin remains in the last 40 years have resulted in this debate becoming increasingly focused on how bipedal certain fossil taxa were rather than on the overall process. Although the early hominin fossil record remains poor, evidence points to at least
But why was bipedalism so critical to human evolution? It is the earliest human feature to have evolved in hominins. Darwin felt that it was to free up the hands for making of tools and weapons. However, the first stone tools don’t appear until approximately 2.5mya, many years after the first evidence of bipedalism in hominids. A more logical explanation may be that bipedalism was selected simply because it is superior to walking quadrupedally. The Efficient Walker theory argues that bipedalism enabled hominids to travel further to locate food and fertile territory which coincided with the disappearance of Miocene forests and emergence of savannas in Africa.
Throughout the conceptual yet acknowledged theories surrounding human evolutionary traits and behaviours, the exact forces that specifically promoted bipedalism are still difficult to determine. Controversy lies with the suggestion that bipedalism arose from as early as 5.8 million years ago, in the late Miocene era, but it can be scientifically defined that the first definite bipedal hominin was the Australopithecus anamensis in the Pliocene. These findings suggest that at 3.9-2.9 million years ago, bipedalism was evolving; certain conditions acted as influences upon the hominins to develop bipedality. As such, specific selection pressures have since been proposed during evolutionary studies to indicate the exact circumstances which
Bipeds have adapted various associated morphological qualities that understand challenges postured by frequent bipedalism. These anatomical traits developed over a huge number of years and contrasts exist amongst prior and later Australopithecus, Paranthropus, and Homo species. Australopithecine and paranthropine development speaks to an outstanding stride in the advancement of people on the grounds that these species are among the soonest hominins known to have evolved.
There has been much debate concerning the origins of bipedalism. Bipedalism, or the ability to move on two legs (eLucy, 2007) was said to have emerged due to climate change in East Africa, for sexual display purpose, to reduce exposure to sunlight, the need to use weapons and tools and many more (NOVA, 2013). There are numerous arguments associated with bipedalism as no one can be entirely sure as to what constituted to the emergence of this trait, which was first present in hominins Australopithecus Afarensis. Anthropologists claim that there is a missing link in the evolutionary lineage that makes it hard to confirm the real cause of bipedalism emergence. However, there are some models which are widely accepted by scientific world, such
What evidence shows the changing from the early hominids to the modern humans? Throughout the human evolution body parts like legs and harms have changed for the better. By the early hominids being biped, meaning they are able to stand and even walk on two feet, it helped them to be able to do more things like getting around more and help with their tool making and hunting. A lot of the fossils discovered were found in the Great Rift Valley in East Africa, which contained many different lakes and small rivers. For many years researchers have been finding new species. These species have been named Australopithicus, robust australopithecines , Orrorin tugenensis, Homo habilis, Homo erectus, neanderthal, and Homo sapiens. These early
There are abundant existing theories of how bipedalism developed into a lasting attribute of hominines. The anticipated origins for the transferal to bipedalism incorporate theories such as heat dissipation, accomplishment in mate attraction, and food gathering (Chadda, 2006). The theories are all extraordinary and remain seemingly credible purposes for why bipedalism may have allowed for early hominids to have a grander chance at advantage and survival. Nevertheless, it is my belief that it was not one solitary reason as to why hominines begun to walk as bipeds, but instead a force of numerous of these origin models that allowed the hominine an advantage over his survival, and the eventual creation of an obligate biped.
Describe the major developments of early human and social evolution. Throughout, discuss tool manufacturing, language development, agriculture, social behavior, and population growth.
of some sort to the general human gene pool, enough to be considered a different
Human evolution according to research started over 6 million years ago. The outcome of the evolution process is the current human beings. Scientific studies have revealed over the years a remarkable affinity between the chimpanzees/Apes and human beings. Even though this reality is not a definitive prove that human beings evolved from apes, it does show that the human beings are in one way or another related to other primates. Scientists suppose that the humans and the primates shared a common ancestor. The subject of what makes humans what they are and their origin has been the exclusive purpose leading to many scientific studies globally (Coolidge & Wynn, 2011). Studies believe that Africa was the origin of evolution millions of years ago. Fossil remains have been discovered in different parts of Africa as well as other regions of the world. Different hominins have been discovered around the world in the last 1 million years. Thus, the different discoveries have led to comparisons between the various species of hominins to clarify on their similarities as well as differences. This essay seeks to explain whether they were distinctively different species or regional versions of the same species.
One of the most astonishing things on earth is the human body. They consist of many organs that work together to maintain the person alive. The humans body composition is complex, but what was the origin? How did we become who we are today? These are the questions that intrigued me, and allowed me to understand how the human body evolved over the years. By the examination of our ancestors, and our body we will understand how we look today.
We share almost 99 percent of our genetic material with chimpanzees. Yet we have several traits that are very different. Two legged walking, or bipedalism seems to be one of the earliest of the major hominine characteristics to have evolved. To