War is a human endeavor. Humanity continually pursues solutions to counter evolving threats with the end of preserving power while also enabling peace. Civilizations resort to war to maintain their perception of this equilibrium. Defined threats and adversaries have changed throughout history, however, the essence of human nature and the base concept of conflict itself have not. Carl von Clausewitz’s theories on warfare capture the relationship between humanity and its application of war, remaining relevant in today’s era through their pensive explanations of timeless philosophical principles regarding the concept of war. These theories regarding war in politics, the key factors affecting war, and the extent that war is applied are inherently interconnected, providing insight on the relationships between humanity and its application of war.
Throughout history, many people have debated over the ethics of war and peace which lead to the creation of the just war theory. There have been a number of wars in the past and even in today’s world that have been proven to be unjustified by the means of this theory. Any war in my opinion, is hard to justify due to the violence, destructiveness, the nature of humans doing during war, and the impact it has on humans and the world. However, I have chosen to discuss why America’s decision to jump in to World War II was justified and by proving it by using the just war theory, mainly focusing on jus ad bellum.
Augustine does argue this by stating that you can’t rule over something or someone that is equal to yourself because to truly rule means to have the ultimate superiority over you which is no other but the truth, who is God. The laws we should follow are the eternal laws that were set forth by our God. We as adults know what the eternal laws are from the upbringing from childhood and the desires and beliefs we’ve become accustomed to. The laws and the morals that we believe are the results of other people’s opinions. As teachers or higher officials in government, we take what they say as the solid truth and the way things have to be,
The assumption that there are a morally significant achievements that can be made in war seems paramount to just war theory. Taking a life without certainty of of the necessity of doing so undermines the value of that life. Because international relations provides such an ambiguous and subjective subject matter to apply just killing theory to, pacifism seems to be the approach most likely to encourage peace.
Augustine will also praise the action that Abraham took when he decided to sacrifice his only son to God. Augustine will argue that the action of Abraham
He felt as though that if the mind were virtuous, which consisted of living a good and noble life, it would command the body, and that the body would become holy through the exercise of holy will. For example, this idea of a holy body was used to determine the purity of a woman who had been raped, for instance if the woman is strong in mind but the body is overcome by force then the body remains holy. However, if the woman is pure but weak in mind and gives in, then body is no longer holy. Augustine also addresses some of the discrepancies some people had with the Old Testament, mainly the commandment that said that thou should not kill. He says that he who kills by order of another is not a killer, but is an aide. An example of this that he used was when Abraham sacrificed his son upon the altar by the order of God. In his work Augustine tells the Christians not to defy the enemies of the City of God because someday many will repent and become citizens of the city. Augustine is a very religious man, which causes his political theories to be somewhat, clouded by his stern beliefs of morality.
Murder being defined as “the crime of unlawfully killing a person, especially with malice aforethought”. This actually limits the scope of the commandment, allowing for many of the causes of unnatural death, including capital punishment and war. St. Augustine (345-430) was both a Christian and a Theologian first, and a philosopher second. Perhaps that is why ne believed that the “highest principals are drawn from…Sacred Scripture,” and not from reason, as other philosophers believed. And although he rarely considered himself a philosopher, St. Augustine was instrumental in adapting the works of Plato, specifically the Republic and the Laws [as previously adapted by Cicero] “to suit the requirements of the faith”. Where theologians and philosophers were normally at odds, St. Augustine was instrumental in “making room for philosophy within the walls of Christianity.” His writings used philosophy to defend religion, while simultaneously providing a theological defense of philosophy, to ensure a compatibility between the two. Although best known for what are widely considered to his most important works, Confessions and City of God [where the term Just War originates], this author believes that his Just War Theory, as adapted St. Thomas Aquinas in Summa Theologiae, has had a greater effect on our
Aristotle believes, “Every art and every inquiry, and similarly every action and pursuit, is thought to aim at some good” (Aristotle 624). The military personnel in the perspective of war trying to aim at some good by killing the criminals. The outcome of the military personnel killing the enemies to going to aim at some good. On the other hand, when the criminals where killing innocent people on the street, their virtues were going to give them never-ending happiness.
Destruction, displacement, and death are all words associated with any war. With that so is the Just Post Bellum, after war. Just Post Bellum has been the concept that deals with morality of the concluding phase of the war. The objective is to maintain peace and justice after the war is over, which will mitigate any other blow ups that may be forthcoming. Just Post Bellum consists of four principle: just cause, reconciliation, punishment, and restoration. These fundamental areas all aid guidance to promote Augustine’s tranquillitas ordinis. “Just war should aim at establishing a just peace” (11) Lifelong peace is what Augustine and the Just Post Bellum are the ultimate desired outcomes of both.
Inasmuch as the history of human society is largely the history of warfare, it seems quite natural for Augustine to explain war as being within God’s unfolding plan for human history. As Augustine states, “It rests with the decision of God in his just judgment and mercy either to afflict or console mankind, so that some wars come to an end more speedily, others more slowly
Though Augustine proved himself exceptional when it came to academics, what he learned rarely quenched the thirst of his intelligent mind, and his precocious nature gravitated toward impulse rather than instinct. He placed his curiosity in “public shows, [which were] the game of adults” (13). This misplacement of curiosity leads him to seek not incorrect knowledge, but knowledge in an incorrect way. His intentions leaned toward self-destruction, as evident in the pear-tree incident, and if intention is crucial in “determining the moral value of an act,” then the benighted Augustine lacked both morale and action (29). Malcontent with the vapidity of everyday life, young Augustine desired to physically feel something, choosing impulse over instinct by abandoning his noetic capabilities in pursuit of carnal pleasures.
Augustine challenged the claims of pagans, including those who sacked Rome. He wished to refute the claims which accused the Christian God as the source of turmoil in Rome. Augustine assured his fellow Christians , through his writing, of the false notions these pagans believed in. Furthermore, he showed the way in which pagans worshipped their gods, including the practice of offering sacrifices, was not the way to eternal salvation. In a time of Chaos and uncertainty, Christians could look to Augustine’s writing in order to find solace in their faith. Therefore, the invaders held no power over them, since
Saint Augustine was born is 354 in a North Africa province part of the Roman Empire. Growing up in the Roman Empire was a major influence on his work. He is well known for his theological teaching on Christianity and developed much of its doctrine. Augustine wrote on political philosophy as well and developed his own ideas on what the ideal state is. Augustine believes that government is an act of God and its function is to allow people to live good lives. The state is a part of God's ultimate plan. The type of government is not important as the state playing its role to God. The church and government will be the key institutions in society and each will take care of different functions.
Whether or not evil is the absence of good is a question that has puzzled Christians since the time of St. Augustine of Hippo. In The Confessions of St. Augustine, he initiates this premise and argues in its favor. Discourse about evil is based on the Christian theological
Augustine's Concept of Politics For Augustine, political life is a necessary evil. Why is it evil and why is it necessary? How then, does his claim influence his political theory? Introduction It is probably prudent to begin by discussing some of the fundamental beliefs of St. Augustine in order to better tackle the