Critically discuss the effects of exercise on the cardiovascular and respiratory system

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The objective of this report is to critically explain the physiological effects of exercise on the human respiratory system and cardiovascular system. To begin with, I will explain the two systems, their specific functions and how they inter-relate. I will then go on to analyse the effects of exercise on the two systems by looking at the way in which the body deals with an increased workload, and any health issues that may affect this.
Cardiovascular system
This system is responsible for pumping blood and oxygen around the body. It is a network made up of blood vessels that transport carbon dioxide from the body to the lungs. The heart is an organ so needs a constant supply of oxygen. This is supplied by a separate network of blood
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The ring is not complete which means they can still move.
- The epiglottis is made out of cartilidge
- Connective tissue is found wherever there is epithelial tissue as it makes up the base membrane of epithelial tissue
Epithelial Tissue
- Inner layer of blood vessels are made up of simple squamous epithelial tissue enabling blood to flow without friction and allowing diffusion
-Endocardial (inner) layer of heart is lined with simple endothelial tissue allowing blood to flow without friction; preventing damage to cells
- The walls of the alveoli are made up of simple squamous epithelial tissue to allow quick diffusion
- Pseudostratified ciliated epithelium line the upper respiratory tract to trap and move pollutants upwards with goblet cells producing mucus to trap debris. Ciliated cells sweep the mucus up out of the airways. Without this type of special lining tissue the lungs would get polluted with dirt from the air that is breathed in (Alberts, B et al, 2002)

Muscle Tissue
- The heart is made up of involuntary cardiac muscle meaning it contracts under control of the nervous system only
- Myocardium (middle) layer of heart wall is cardiac muscle made up of myogenic cells enabling the heart to contract without nerve signals. This means the heart can carry on beating even if a person is classed as ‘brain dead’
- Muscle tissues are made up of
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