Critically evaluate Gardner and Lambert’s theory of instrumental and integrative motivation as a key influencing factor in Second Language Acquisition

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Critically evaluate Gardner and Lambert’s theory of instrumental and integrative motivation as a key influencing factor in Second Language Acquisition

During the process of studying second language, Gardner and Lambert’s theory about instrumental and integrative motivation has a significant impact on different learners. As Falk (2000; cited in Norris-Holt, 2001) states that if learners aim to develop relationship with foreign friends or comprehend lyrics in popular song, which means that these learners are vastly encouraged by integrative motivation for learning second language. In addition, Hudson (2000; cited in Norris-Holt, 2001) argues that when learners intend to have more opportunities to apply for a decent job or avoid punishment
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In addition, Gardner and Lambert argued that integrative motivation is more significant than instrumental motivation for learner acquirement of second language. It is can be given a description of Warden and Lin (2008), if learners have a compulsive purpose for learning second language and enjoy themselves, instead of pursuing a decent job or avoiding punishment. This behavior will obtain more contributions and goals than others with instrumental motivation. There are some evidences making sure that their theory exists in some of advantages in academic filed from a large amount of research.

Nevertheless, there is undoubted that their theory also possesses some of shortcomings for many different areas and aspects. Therefore, it is gradually clear and obviously that a majority of research from Gardener and Lambert was carrying out a social psychological framework in Canada. It means that it is difficult to appropriate for other situation and all of nations. For instance, Dornyei (1994b:520) states that although there is empirically evident to practice this theory, the primary drawback with it is that the research was solely tested on the SL (second language) learners and cannot be applied to the FL (foreign language) learners. In addition to this point, not only integrative and instrumental motivation can affect second language

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