Curriculums are the roadmaps for schools which provide purpose and direction for administrators, educators, parents, and students. Curriculum typically refers to, “the knowledge and skills students are expected to learn, which includes the learning standards or learning objectives they are expected to meet; the units and lessons that teachers teach; the assignments and projects given to students; the books, materials, videos, presentations, and readings used in a course; and the tests, assessments, and other methods used to evaluate student learning.” (Curriculum, 2015, para. 1) Curriculums may come in many shapes and forms, whether they’re purchased as a package at the school or district level or they’re created or refined by educators and
Brady and Kennedy (2010) define the term curriculum as ‘the means by which young people and adults gain the essential knowledge, skills and attributes they need to be productive and informed citizens in a democratic society.’ However the term has many varied definitions, it can be described as being the subject matter, the overall plan for teaching or the outcome of what is taught (Wiles, 2005). Marsh and Willis (cited in Marsh, 2009, p. 3) break curriculum down into three individual areas of ‘planned curriculum’, the objectives and aims, ‘enacted curriculum’, how the objectives are
In this essay the author Gerald Graff, talks about how schools should try and make classes more interesting not just for academically smart students but also those who don’t relatively enjoy being in school and those who don’t succeed as much as the others. I’m talking about the street smart students. Those who have little to no interest in anything that is happening around them and would rather be out doing the things that they love. In essay, “Hidden Intellectualism” by Gerald Graff, it begins with the old argument that teachers have been arguing about for decades, should we teach more non-academic topics in our schools.
Curriculum is a term often highlighted during discourse about education and most commonly understood as a policy with overt leaning outcomes for teachers to apply and achieve. Ornstein and Hunkins (1998), as cited by Selvaraj (2010), defined curriculum based on two lenses; micro and macro, which identify the term as both policy towards certain goals and what students experience with consideration for relevant theories and principles central to its development and implementation. However, Wilson (n.d.) argued that curriculum is not restricted to certain individuals, subjects and environments, since teaching and learning can also occur beyond the scope of official curriculum (Ebert & Culyer, as cited in Marsh, Clarke & Pittaway, 2014). I believe this interpretation is the closest to the true nature of curriculum, or education, as there are more complex layers to curriculum than just a written guideline. For example, not one curriculum is similar to another because it is subjected to influences from continuum number of factors, such as politics and economy. Hence, it is wise to conclude that curriculum could not be defined based on a singular perspective due to its dependability on context.
In chapter 5, Reforming America’s Schools, I learned many things that affect me as an educator. An important fact that interests me was that there are four goals that schools should follow. The first one is academic, including a broad array of knowledge and intellectual skills. The second one is vocational, aimed at readiness for the world of work and economic responsibilities. The third one is social and civic, including skills and behavior for participating in a complex democratic society. The fourth one is personal, including the development of individual talent and self-expression. This will affect me as an educator so that I can follow and do my best to complete these goals. Now I am aware of what should be done in a classroom.
Knowing your students’ capabilities, time constraints, hobbies, schema, and socioeconomic status is crucial to teaching. Teachers who are familiar with their students have an advantage in planning their teaching for several reasons. The first is motivation. If a teacher understands what a student likes or dislikes, they can use this to their advantage. For example, if a student is having problems understanding order of operations, hates math, but really loves video games, you could have them explain the order of steps to beat their favorite video game and use that order of operations to show them the mathematical order of operations. In the same way, if a student is from a lower SES and must work a part-time job to help support their family, they may not be motivated to do homework and projects outside of the classroom. Being able to relate the importance of your content to students is key to motivation. If a student is not motivated, they will not learn, much less excel. The transactional Theory states that learning is a transaction between the student, context, and content with purpose. Each of these must be present for students to learn. Creating relevance to our content in each student’s life is critical to learning. We as teachers cannot create the context for learning or relevance if we do not know our students.
Comparatively, Wiggins’ ideals are relative to the suggestions stated in the “Basic Prinicipals of Curriculum and Instruction” by Ralph W. Tyler in that both clearly express how the subject specialists, the learner, contemporary life, and the psychology of how students learn best and the appropriate sequence of the knowledge, skill, habit of thinking, interests, and the like all make an important contribution when are considered when developing a curriculum and instruction that best aligns to the selection of educational purposes that a school seeks out to attain. (Tyler, 2013) Wiggins clearly states that the standards narrow what’s important for students to know and be able to do by the end of high school. Contrary to what we have today,
Interests- This lesson is differentiated by interest because students are able to choose a center that appeals to them. I purposely created the stations with different interests in mind. There are games, candy, literacy, and writing involved.
Developing a curriculum is a difficult process, moreso when an educator has to keep in mind the number of students they are trying to reach. At the secondary level, it is not uncommon for a teacher to be responsible for 150 or more students. Each of these students presents a unique and trying task for educators who want to help students learn. Students have different modalities for which they gain knowledge, and it is the teacher’s job to engage those
A curriculum is any planned educational experience. Ideally, the learning objectives should incorporate the acronym “SMART”: Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, and Targeted to the learner. Systematic Curriculum and Instructional Development (SCID) is a successful model for curriculum development customized to complement the needs of career and technical educators as well as business and industry trainers. It has five phases: design, development, implementation, evaluation. Since curriculum reflects the models of instructional delivery chosen and used, some might indicate that curriculum could be categorized according to the common psychological classifications of the four families of learning theories “Social, Information Processing, Personalist, and Behavioral” as defined by Cortes (1981). Cortes
Everyday, teachers are faced with the challenge of teaching students new information that is valuable to their future. Teachers are responsible to determine what and how information is taught. How this information is taught to students is pertinent to their success; therefore, teachers must be able to use effective teaching methods in the classroom. Students have diverse learning styles; therefore, teachers need to determine how students learn best and pattern their teaching to accommodate these differences. During elementary school, children learn to read and write, acquire a basic understanding of content areas, and develop dispositions toward
When it comes to how students should learn, different people will have a different approach. Some might want to approach learning in a more hands-on way, while others may want to students to learn more independently. In addition, each student is an individual, and they each have their own ways of learning as well. One student may be more visual, while another student may approach learning in a more physical way. Each student and their unique abilities must be taken into account. While educators will have their own views on how the curriculum should be, there is bound to be some overlap as well. This is where the theories from educational theorists and authors John Dewey and Ralph Tyler become part of the conversation. John Dewey was known as one of the fathers of functional psychology, and was also an advocate for progressive education. Ralph Tyler, on the other hand was an educator who worked in assessment. Each of these men, contributed a large of themselves to the educational system, in their own ways that are noteworthy. While they may share some similarities in their approach to education, there are some notable differences as well. This paper will be used to briefly explore the similarities and also the differences that are found in the ideas from these two educational figures.
In order to teach successfully teachers must learn about first learn about their students. Teachers must assess the student’s capabilities and interests. Some students are visual learners, while others learn from hands on activities, or verbal communication. Not all students can learn through memorization, rather they learn through interest and relation to the topic. “To realize what an experience, or empirical situation, means, we have to call to mind the sort of situation that presents itself outside of school" (Democracy and Education). The curriculum should encompass material that is most useful for a student to learn. It seems that in the majority of schools, students are not given the flexibility to guide their own learning, but rather follow rigid instructions that destroy the student’s imagination.
For this program outcome I chose my curriculum analysis paper from CUR 512, Curriculum Analysis and Planning. In this course we defined curriculum, the aspects that are considered when writing curriculum, the theoretical perspectives found within curriculum, and the goals of the curriculum. By writing this paper, I was able to focus in on a unit that I teach in third grade social studies to get a full picture of the curriculum. I was also able to see the complex issues surrounding the curriculum that I never previously noticed.
According to Blaise and Nuttall (2011), to understand curriculum, we must first understand what is meant by the term curriculum. Within curriculum there are five key concepts, they are the intended curriculum The Intended curriculum is the curriculum that the teachers want the children to experience in order to develop particular knowledge, skills, and attitudes. (Blaise & Nuttall, 2011, p. 82). The enacted curriculum is what teachers want students to experience. important reason why the intended curriculum is enacted differently from teacher to teacher, from classroom to classroom, is that a key part of a teachers work is to interpret the official curriculum, taking into account a wide range of variables that are specific to their classroom and school setting.