Cross-cultural difference of PDI (UAE vs USA)
The United Arab Emirates scores high on this dimension (score of 90) which means that people accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and which needs no further justification. Hierarchy in an organization is seen as reflecting inherent inequalities, centralization is popular, subordinates expect to be told what to do and the ideal boss is a benevolent autocrat.
In USA (with lower PDI), subordinates do not fear contradicting their leaders. On the other hand, in UAE (with higher PDI) subordinates do not contradict their bosses. Furthermore, employees in these countries appreciate that higher-ranked managers decide autocratically. However, they do not acknowledge minorities like…show more content… However, they face big challenges on their leadership as they encounter conflicting issues of their employees’ expectations who are from a very different culture.
Expat leaders- in this study, Germans, take time to build trust with another culture (with their Chinese subordinates) and plan strategically on the ways to motivate those local staff. Therefore, expat’s job satisfaction is influenced by the addressed leadership problems.
Expats need to maintain proper distance and develop satisfied relationship with their local employees. (Patrick Rau et al., 2013)
2.3 Conclusion of Literature Review
From our literature, we have come close in solving our research question:
How prevalent is the relationship between leadership style with employee’s motivation and Job satisfaction, even if an MNC is situated within a middle-eastern culture of high power distance?
For our RQ1, several researchers have proved that based on a different culture, environment and diversity, setting one of the several leadership styles positively affected both motivation and satisfaction. It may have been transactional, transformational and even instrumental.
By shedding light on some of the widely known styles, it brought us closer to Daniel Goleman’s approach where emotional intelligence is the driver for every leader’s style and a leader may either choose one or a combination of his six styles ranging from the two negatively perceived styles to the