Cross Training Modalities As A Form Of Injury Prevention

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Implementing cross training modalities as a form of injury prevention is a common practice among endurance runners. Lower extremity injury rates among runners have been observed at rates between 19.4% and 79.3% annually, specifically categorized as chronic overuse injuries (van Gent, et al., 2007; Hoeberigs, J.H., 1992). Additionally, it is suggested that approximately 60% of chronic injuries can be attributed to increasing training volume too suddenly (Hreljac, 2004). It has been thought that multiple different cross training modalities can be a reasonable low-impact substitute of aerobic exercise (Burns, & Lauder, 2001; Lu, Chien and Chen, 2007; Kilding, Scott, and Mullineax, 2007). Many methods of cross training have been used as a substitute to running, including elliptical exercise (EE), deep water running (DWR), swimming, and stationary cycling (Foster et al., 1995; Lu et al., 2007; Pizza et al., 1995; Sozen, 2010). When coaches and rehabilitation specialists prescribe certain forms of cross training, many factors must be considered when deciding which will be most beneficial. The specificity of training principles suggests that relevant activities should be done in order to gain results in the primary activity. Cross training is an activity that is used to improve the performance of one sport by training in an additional one, contrary to what the specificity principle would imply for preferred practices (Kilding, Scott, & Mullineaux, 2007; Masumoto, Bryon, & Mercer,

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