Cultural Values And Social Values

1439 Words Dec 7th, 2015 6 Pages
Culture plays a key role in individual motivation. Culture is defined as, “…values, attitudes, meanings (attributed to language), beliefs, and ways of acting and interacting that are learned and shared by a group of people over a period of history and are often taken for granted as reality by those within the ‘said’ culture” (Glazer, 2002, p. 146). If culture defines our values and beliefs, then culture influences our cognitive representations of needs, in turn affecting how individuals perceive his/her own needs. Different perceptions of needs alter individuals’ goals and how they are achieved. The way we act and interact comes from our culture’s desire to express core cultural values. Looking into cultural values provides context for understanding what might motivate individuals. Hofstede (1980) and Schwartz (1999) have each developed a cultural values framework.
Cultural value frameworks
Hofstede’s dimensions of culture were postulated from access to an IBM employee survey database obtained from over 50 countries (Hofstede, 1983). Initial factor analysis matrices of 32 values questions developed four dimensions of culture: individualism versus collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity versus femininity (Hofstede, 1980). Later, a fifth and sixth dimension were added: long-term vs. short-term orientation and indulgence vs. restraint (Hofstede et al., 2010). These dimensions relate to Schwartz (1999) purposed three dimensions of seven…
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