Current Challenges And Problems With Antimalarial Therapy

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1.5 Current Challenges and Problems With Antimalarial Therapy
Obviously, drug resistance to current available antimalarial drugs has become an urgent problem nowadays. In some parts of Southeast Asia, P. falciparum mutated into specie that can be resistant to almost all the antimalarials[2.6]. And chloroquine resistant species also gradually emerged in Africa[2.7]. Beside of P. falciparum, the drug resistant P. vivax had also been detected frequently in these areas[2.6]. The increasing serious situation caused by resistance calls up the discovery of new kinds of antimalarial chemotherapy and other control approaches. One potential ways of parasites clearance is partner drug, which means combining two or more antimalarials. This strategy
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This makes it even harder to control the global spread of malaria, and more money and efforts are needed to spend on malaria prevention and limitation. Other factors, like insecticide resistance and environment changes are responsible for increasing tough situations as well[2.9,12,14]. This wakes up the industrial and academic interest worldwide, and in the last five years, increasing amount of funding and research topics are assigned to develop antimalarial drugs and vaccine.
2. Drug Discovery Approaches and Currently Available Antimalarial Drugs
Till now, various kinds of antimalarial drugs are developed. Among them, the earliest one is quinine, which is isolated from Cinchona tree bark in 1800s. It is the first widely used antimalarials, and it can quickly clear the malarial parasites in blood cell, which makes it an efficient drug at that time. Later, during the World War II, higher demand for effective antimalarial drugs lead to the appearance of other alternatives, like primaquine, amodiaquine, and pyrimethamine.
And then, for supporting the North Vietnamese army, artemisinin is isolated from traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Its structure has also been determined later on. Artemisinin is a highly effective antimalarial drug. And based on its scaffold, other derivatives had been developed, such as artesunate, artemether, etc., which exerted significant role on against
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