Current Epidemiology of Diabetes in the Uk

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Diabetes- current epidemiology and measuring variables at a local level

Introduction

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is not classed as single disorder as it represents a series of conditions associated with high blood sugar which are cased in turn by defects in insulin secretion or the effectiveness of insulin or both. It is usually diagnosed by evidence of hyperglycaemia in a fasting state (>7.1 mmol/l plasma glucose) or threw an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)( >11.1mmol/l plasma glucose). It can be diagnosed in adults who are not pregnant by a glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level ( 6.5% or > 48 mmol/mol) (NICE 2011).

There are a few types of Diabetes including the main two Type 1, Type 2 which we will concentrate on. Others
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The National Diabetes Inpatient Audit 2011 looked at data from 11,866 in-patients with diabetes. They found that the median stay for in-patients with diabetes was 8 nights compared to 5 for all inpatients in England.

The other major concern is Diabetes as whole is associated with increased mortality.
Between 2008-2009 it is estimated that the total number of deaths of people with diagnosed diabetes in England is of the order of 70 to 75 thousand per year. This is approximately 15 -16 % of the 460 thousand deaths occurring in that year in England. (Diabetes Audit Mortality Report 2011)

Risk factors
If we go on to look at risk factors of developing diabetes and discuss them a little. Some of these risk be reduced or modified by changes to lifestyle.

Genetics : For type 2 Diabetes, Genetics plays a crucial role in the manifestation of the disease, as studies have shown a concordance in monozygotic twins approaching 100% (Diabeties UK 2010, Newman et al 1987) One study carried out by Lyssenko et al (2008) studied the effect of genetic variants on changes in insulin secretion and action over a period of time. They found that common genetic variants associated with the risk of diabetes had a small effect on the ability to predict the future development of type 2 diabetes.
People with diabetes in the family are two to six times more likely to have diabetes than people without diabetes in the family.
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