Current Perspectives, Research Findings, Synthesis And Analysis

1601 Words Apr 18th, 2016 7 Pages
Current Perspectives, Research Findings, Synthesis and Analysis According to Knowles (1973), self-actualization is the goal of adult education. Knowles would champion the term and use of andragogy for adults. Post-secondary higher education for adult learners is a need that can be addressed by broadening accessibility and through the use group learning. Eventually, this objective is met in 1976 by the University of Phoenix by focusing on addressing an appropriate pedagogical learning approach called collaborative; which is “viewed as a pillar of adult education” (Harasim, 2012, p. 128).
An alternative approach to pedagogy and andragogy was raised by Knudson in 1980, as he proposed replacing the term with humanagogy (Holmes & Abington-Cooper, 2000). Humanagogy is used as a holistic approach to adult education, by acknowledging similarities and differences in both terms and putting it in perspective (Holmes & Abington-Cooper, 2000). “Like the Chinese symbol of yin and yang, they are at the same time opposites and complements and equally necessary (Knudson, 1980, p. 8)” (Holmes & Abington-Cooper, 2008, para. 25).
Voluntarism was proposed by Rachal in 1983, in relation to self-directed and teacher-directed learning approaches. As highly motivated students gain value intrinsically, as do lesser motivated students may so extrinsically (Holmes & Abington-Cooper, 2000). His ideals were that volunteering is a part of the nature of adult learning and a cornerstone of the…
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