Curriculum Development and Change

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INTRODUCTION

There seems to be a lot of controversy and uncertainty as to ¡¥what is the curriculum?¡¦ As such, there is a distributing lack of consensus on an all-embracing definition of this comprehensive concept. This is, in part, due to the various interpretations, meanings, emphasis and approaches that the scholars of curriculum studies embark upon. This, in turn, leaves the education practitioners and the general public in the dark as to what constitutes that which should be considered as ¡¥good curriculum practice¡¦ in educational institutions.

This exposition seeks to highlight and evaluate the key concepts of the curriculum and some of the factors that have marked influence on curriculum planning, curriculum development and
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Curriculum Planning, Development and Change
3.1 Curriculum Planning
Professor Ralph Tyler notes with concern that curriculum planning consists of four dimensions namely objectives or goal, content or subject matter, method or procedures and evaluation. This is a very simple and linear model which starts off by specifying what we intend to achieve (objectives). Next the ground to be covered (content) is considered followed by the mechanisms to be put in place in reaching the goals envisage (methods) and finally, make attempts to measure the success of the whole exercise (evaluation).

The ¡¥objective¡¦ planning model has been severely criticised since it does not leave room for interrelatedness of the separate dimensions. The most preferred planning mode is a cyclical one which links up evaluation with the objectives to form a continuous cycle. Some scholars, however, argue that evaluation should not be delayed until the end of the exercise rather it should occur continuously at any stage of the planning process.

There are other models that place emphasis on content (traditional approach) while some models focus solely on procedures (progressive approach). All the planning models cited here, unfortunately, do not give precise answers in terms of criteria for the selection of objectives, content, alternative procedures and forms of evaluation

Denis Lawton, (1973) as
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