Customer Satisfaction Area ( Olive, 1980 )

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Generally speaking, the perceived service quality is a subjective term that captures the overall superiority of a product comparing with other products that satisfy the similar needs (Holbrook & Corfman, 1985). Sometimes, service quality interchanges with overall attitude whose definition is “a learned predisposition to respond to an object in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way” (Allport, 1935), and they are perceived as two similar terms to some researchers (Bitner, 1990; Zeithaml et al., 1988). Actually, either definition captures the subjective element in service quality. In the late 1980s and the early 1990s, some researchers argued that perceived service quality is based on the expectations and the actual service delivery (Boulding, Kalra, Staelin, & Zeithaml, 1993; Parasuraman et al., 1985), similar to the gap model in the customer satisfaction area (Olive, 1980). Specifically, expectations are customers’ subjective beliefs of the likely outcomes that a service provides (Oliver & Winer, 1987) while the actual service delivery is the objective factors that a service really provides (Boulding et al., 1993). The subjective nature of expectation and the subjective process in evaluating actual service delivery determine that service quality is a subjective term. Therefore, because of the heterogeneity (Edgett and Parkinson, 1993; Zeithaml et al., 1985), perceive service quality is difficult to improve with traditional quality control in service industry. In this

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