Pharmacotherapy i.e. treatment through drugs in this case antidepressants, is one of the many therapies used to treat depression. There are varieties of antidepressants that are used as a treatment of depression, for example tricyclics. The newest and most commonly used antidepressants are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The Cochrane review (2007) has showed evidence that SSRIs such as fluoxetine compared with a placebo have been effective when treating depression in children and adolescents. Another type of antidepressants that have been used in treatment of depression are tricyclics, unlike SSRIs, a study by Hazell (2004) has shown that they are an ineffective treatment of depression.
All of these factors, although there is no certain cause, contribute to the development of the Dysthymia Disorder, or also known as Persistent Depressive Disorder. The good thing about Dysthymia Disorder is that there are different types of treatment; medications, therapy, and changes in one’s lifestyle. Medications a doctor might prescribe antidepressants that are fit for that person such as, Fluoxetine, Zoloft, Amitriptyline, Amoxapine, as well as serotonin inhibitors such as Duloxetine. One might need to try different medications before they find one that is right for them. Therapy is another great treatment for Dysthymia Disorder. A therapist can help someone with Dysthymia Disorder cope with their emotions, understand them, adjust to a change in their life, encourage positive thoughts, and help show someone a healthy way to express their emotions. Another suggested treatment for someone with Dysthymia Disorder is lifestyle changes, this condition is long-lasting so changes in one’s lifestyle could help them better cope with their disorder. Some examples of lifestyle changes are exercising at least 3 times per week, eating a healthy diet that if fit for a person’s weight, avoiding depressants such as drugs and alcohol, picking up a hobby, and meditating to relax the mind. If these do not work for someone and they are having a difficult time coping with Dysthymia they should call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at
Of these different options, medications and therapy are the most commonly chosen route to take by people who have the illness. For medication, certain medications will try to affect the balance of serotonin or norepinephrine. Others will try to regulate the amount of dopamine in the brain. All of these are affected by neurotransmitters, which are located in the brain, and affect a person’s moods. Those that affect the amount of serotonin in the brain are commonly called SSRIs, or selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors. Popular brand names are Zoloft, Prozac, and Paxil
Due to the harmful side effects of antidepressants, other forms of coping and dealing with depression should be implicated. Using tricyclic antidepressants as a last resort is an option that should be considered only after trying other forms of therapies such as cognitive and behavioral treatment, group therapy, and psychodynamic therapy. Cognitive and behavioral therapies focus on trying to change the behavior of the patient instead of focusing on the past and root issue of the problem. “The main idea of behavioral therapy is that people who are rewarded for the wrong things and punished for positive acts end up behaving in ways that don’t serve them well” (Wolff 61). Another equally effective aid for depression is the most commonly known type of therapy, psychodynamic therapy; psychodynamic therapy works by setting an example of a healthy
Methaqualone, is also referred to as Disco Biscuits, Down And Dirties, Jekyll-and-Hyde, Joe Fridays, Lemmon 714, Lemons, Lennon's, Lovers, Ludes, Mandies, Mandrake, Q, Qua, Quack, Quad, Quaaludes, Soaper, Supper, Vitamin Q, The Love Drug, Wallbangers, Whore Pills, and Sopor. This list of street names for the drug goes on and on.
Some of the most common antidepressants include Prozac, Celexa, Zoloft, Paxil, Remeron and Effexor, these come capsules or tablets, studies show that the effects of these drugs can include: Nervousness and anxiety, Insomnia, Irritability, Violent thoughts and actions, Agitation, Hostility, Suicidal thoughts or suicide, Tremors, Irregular heartbeat, Aggression, Confusion and incoherent thoughts, Paranoia, Hallucinations, Psychosis,
normalize the abnormal low levels of brain chemicals for those who suffer from MDD. On the
Jann States that sufferers of BPD are three times more likely to suffer a depressive episode than a manic or hypomanic episode. (Jann, 2014) The Joanna Briggs institute Identified that the suicide rate for bipolar suffers are 15 times higher than that of non-affected individuals of the same age and sex. Eighty percent of these suicides occur during a depressive episode. (Hung Chu, 2016). Therefore appropriate pharmacological therapy not only during the maintenance period to reduce reoccurrence but also during these acute episodes is highly important. Pharmaceutical treatment includes the use of medication such as mood stabilizers, anti-psychotics and anti-depressants. The Joanna Briggs institute recommends that combination therapy involving both mood stabilizers such as Sodium valproate or lithium valproate and antipsychotics risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine and haloperidol is best to treat acute mania associated with Bipolar. As it increases adherence to medication regime. (Tufanaru, 2016) The same institute encourages the use Olanzapine as a monotherapy or in combination with fluoxetine in the treatment of Depression associated with Bipolar disorder. (Hung chu, 2016) Lithium continues to be the first line mood stabilizer under current guidelines but may be used in conjunction with Carbamazepine where depression is evident. (Hung chu, 2016) The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2015 also shows preference for combination therapy
In 1995, Depakote was approved by the FDA for the treatment of bipolar disorder and is slowing becoming the most widely prescribed drug for the use on mania. Depakote hasn't totally replaced lithium; however, it is being used on patients that were not previously treatable with lithium. Compared with lithium, Depakote doesn't have all the bad side effects when properly administered. Patients taking Depakote find their thinking is clearer and don't seems to have the kidney and thyroid problems (Burns 104-106). The antipsychotic drug Clozaril also has been used to stabilize the moods of bipolar disorders, especially those that have not responded to lithium and the anticonvulsants. One major side effect of Clozaril is that is suppresses the production of white blood cells on about 1% of patients (Harvard Mental Health Letter, June 1997). Because of this side effect, doctors have to be extremely careful when prescribing.
Drugs that are depressants include Zyprexa, Seroquel and Haldol, are known as major tranquilizers or antipsychotics, they reduce the symptoms of mental illness. Some other depressants, such as Amytal, Numbutal and Seconal, are classed as barbiturate, which are used as sedatives and sleeping pills. Depressants have the effect of feelings of well-being, lowered inhibition, slowed thinking, slowed muscular activity,a distorted view of the world, or hallucinations Depressants act on the brain by affecting the neurotransmitter GABA. By increasing GABA and inhibit brain activity,they produce a drowsy or calming effect beneficial to those suffering from anxiety or sleep
Antidepressants have shown effectiveness in the long-term treatment of GAD, as well as providing therapeutic effects without compromising the safety of the individual, as compared to Benzodiazepines. One class of antidepressants used to treat GAD is the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI). These SSRIs work by inhibiting the reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin, which affects mood regulation. With the help of SSRI, “the serotonin stays in the synaptic gap longer than it normally would, and may repeatedly stimulate the receptors of the recipient cell” (Goodman et al., 2011) As such, with the increase of serotonin, it aids in the induction of mood-elevating and contributes to the therapeutic anti-anxiety effects of SSRIs. Some of the common drugs prescribed under the SSRI class are Venlafaxine, Escitalopram, Paroxetine and Duloxetine. These drugs have their adverse effects with sexual dysfunction being the most common. Other adverse effects include gastrointestinal effects such as nausea, diarrhoea, dry mouth and constipation, along with occurrences of sleep disturbances. (Khawam, Laurencic & Malone Jr.,
Some additional medications used for the treatment of mood disorders include anticonvulsants, Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MOAIs), and Lithium. Each type of medications has their own side effects that need to be
It is used in treating bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, but it can be used in other depressive disorders also like obsessive compulsive disorders and some kind of irritability which is related to autism.
I have increased to the 40mg dosage of the Cymbalta and am seeing greater progress during my work hardening sessions with Michael Caruso. He mentioned this afternoon that the restriction in my shoulder had eased slightly and I was gaining greater mobility. However, I am experiencing many of the side effects that we knew might be occur such as a change in consciousness and having to read a document a couple times for comprehension, trouble remaining asleep, feeling lightheaded and very fatigued, and decreased appetite.
Bipolar disorder is a major mood disorder that includes the cycling of two parts; acute mania and bipolar depression. There are many factors that affect the onset of bipolar disorder, such as genetics, environment, and dysfunction in the brain. Due to its two-part nature, various drugs have been used as antidepressants or antipsychotics. Unfortunately, not all drugs have the ability to target both aspects of bipolar disorder. As of right now there are various pharmacotherapeutics for bipolar disorder, but two of the most widely used are Lithium treatments or Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs). These are some of the primary treatments for bipolar disorder and even more pharmacotherapeutics and methods are being developed to ensure that patients are utilizing them properly.