Historically, masculinity in the United States has been constructed as being White Protestant Anglo-Saxon, furthermore heterosexual and in charge of all matters, and this definition sets standards against which other men are measured an evaluated. Michael Kimmel provides a good definition:
The United States scored a 62 while Canada scored a 52 in this value, meaning that the United States masculinity is high compared to that of Canada. The United States score of 62 indicates that our society is “driven by competition, achievement and success with success being defined by the winner or best-in-the-field” (Hofstede, 2015). Canada’s score of 52 indicates that “the overall cultural tone is more subdued with respect to achievement, success and winning” (Hofstede, 2015).The United States strives to be the best with a “live to work attitude” while Canada shows balance between “work-life balance and are likely to take time to enjoy personal pursuits, family gatherings and life in general” (Hofstede,
Hofstede uses the words masculinity and femininity to refer to the degree to which masculine or feminine traits are valued or revealed (Samovar, Porter and McDaniel). The United States rates as a moderately masculine. Countries that favor masculinity stress equity, competition, and performance(Yates). They also strive for material success and expected to respect whatever is big, strong, and fast. France values femininity and stress equality, solidarity, and quality of work life (Yates). A feminine worldview maintains that men can assume nurturing roles while promoting sexual equality. One major difference in masculine/feminine cultures is the role of the woman in the workplace and at home. Feminine societies expect women to work and often provide the necessary social support systems. Although the United States is more masculine than France both countries treat females as equals.
This is about a culture called Nacirema that is practiced in many different place and was brought to the attention of the Anthropologist attention by Professor Linton to talk about this culture that was poorly understood. The Nacirema is a type of culture that is summed up as that these people that believe in this culture that the human body is ugly and that the natural tendencies are meant to debilitate and cause disease. They are also big believes in rituals and ceremonies in the household to preform these ceremonies either as a family but in most cases it was privately. Where they would receive charms and other items form the medicine man of the community that would help with a certain problem. They would use these magic items to help with
Understanding cultural diversity is significantly important in driving global business. This is because different countries have different cultures and in one way or the other affect the business environment. For a company or organization that seeks to expand its business or activities to international markets, cultural analysis is a must process. This involves looking at issues such as the country’s relevant history, geographical setting, social institutions, religion and aesthetics, living conditions, social security, health care and language among others. The company at hand is Dogfish Head and was started in June 1995 with the intention of bringing original beer, original food and original music to the area surrounding the resort beach community of Rehoboth Beach, Delaware (Dogfish, 2016). The company now intends to expand its operations to Czech Republic with its major export product being beer.
First, before the Second World War, the nation of Czechoslovakia had been a strong democracy in Central Europe, but beginning in the mid 1930s it faced challenges from both the West and the East. Until the Soviet’s invasion where they installed a whole new communist government in Prague. For the next twenty
“In accounts grounded in sex-role theory, such as that by Harris, “masculinity” identifies cultural “norms” and “scripts” which set standards for and thus influence men’s behaviour.” (Flood 205) It is through the process of socialization and interaction that we learn what attitudes, behaviours, norms and scripts make a man ‘manly’ enough to be respected in society. Not every society and time period has the same standards on what it means to be masculine and what traits a man must possess in order to be ‘culturally honoured’ or be considered the ‘ideal’ man by society; therefore, “masculinity is historically contingent on so many factors.” (Spring) In the West, for example, an ‘ideal’ man in society must be able to supress his emotions, be financially/socially stable, be successful, and Caucasian. South Asian countries have other standards set by society of what it means to be masculine.
Between November and December of 1989, the Velvet Revolution took place in Czechoslovakia. The defeat of the Communist party in Czechoslovakia was a result of popular protest and student demonstrations. The country returned to capitalism and democracy and later separated to become the Czech and Slovak
The world average for the Masculinity Dimension is 50, with both the United States and Australia having a higher ranking. Traits associated with masculinity are assertiveness, material success, and individual achievement. The female population has adapted these traits and begun to shift toward a more traditional male role, with an increasing number of women continuing to enter the workforce. The direct communication style of the United States illustrates the masculine traits. The U.S. places heavy emphasis on getting their point across rather than getting to know those they are doing business with. This dimension is closely related to both countries’ rankings in the individuality dimension.
The Velvet Revolution as a whole was based off of Communism and therefore, if Czechoslovakia never became communist, they would’ve always had freedom. In order for them to have avoided this they should have avoided the termination of a large loan, handled the strikes with more power, and gotten support from Great Britain and the United States. Following World War II, the Czechoslovakians were not apart of the Soviet Union and they had a large loan with the United States. Soon after the war, America became anxious that the country might have too much soviet influence and they became worried when Eduard Benes, President, strongly opposed, “the political rehabilitation and possible rearmament of Germany” (Communists 1). America withdrew the loan.
In contemporary society, hegemonic masculinity is defined by physical strength and boldness, heterosexuality, economic independence, authority over women and other men, and an interest in sexual relationships. While most men do not embody all of these qualities, society supports hegemonic masculinity within all its institutions, including the educational institute, the religious institute and other institutes which form the ideological state apparatus.