DETAILED DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EUKARYOTIC AND PROKARYOTIC CELLS

817 Words Apr 17th, 2014 4 Pages
DETAILED DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EUKARYOTIC AND PROKARYOTIC CELLS

Cells are divided into two categories namely the Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. These two have varying differences between them. Speaking in simple cell biology words, prokaryotes are primitive, simple organisms that lack membranous cell organelles. The opposite of this are eukaryotes, which are advanced and complex organisms having membrane bound cell organelles. Seemingly simple in structure and markedly different from eukaryote and protist organisms, prokaryotic cells are believed to have been amongst the first on the Earth and very well may out-survive all other organisms. Examples of prokaryotes are bacteria and archaea and eukaryotes include fungi, animal and plant cells.
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The resulting haploid gametes fuse to give a diploid cell.

Prokaryotes are generally able to carry out their life processes of growth, energy generation and reproduction independently of other cells which is very different to the cells of eukaryotes which are unable to live alone in nature and can exist only as part of a multicellular organism. Most eukaryotic cells are uniquely suited to their own particular environmental niche and rarely grows out of it, but prokaryotes i.e. bacteria can grow in a multiplicity of environments ranging from hot sulphur springs (65°C) to deep freezers (–20°C) and also in nutritionally poor environment. A major difference in chemical composition between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is that eukaryotes have sterols in their membranes (e.g. cholesterol) whereas the plasma membrane of prokaryotic cells does not contain carbohydrates and generally lacks sterols. In prokaryotic cells the enzymes, topoisomerases, that control topological changes in DNA architecture are different from their eukaryotic counterparts (act on linear Chromosomes). The cytoplasm of prokaryotes is densely packed with ribosomes that are not associated with a membranous structure ie endoplasmic reticulum whilst in eukaryotic cells the ribosomes can either be free lying or bound to the endoplasmic reticulum.
Prokaryotes maintain their DNA in a supercoiled state by the combined
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