Aristotle and Heidegger have conflicting views on what a human or beings are. Although, there are some similarities to each of their set of ideas. Aristotle has a clear hierarchical framework classifying the differences between humans, animals, and plants. Heidegger opposes this strict definitions by discussing this idea of “Dasein” which states of being there. Although, their approaches to this topic are different with the types of question one asks and how they theorize about what is a being. There is key similarities that they discuss almost two thousand years apart. Aristotle and Heidegger are two philosophers that have tackled the enormous question, what is it to be a being? This paper discusses the two different approaches to defining this long standing question.
Take a minute to relax. Enjoy the lightness, or surprising heaviness, of the paper, the crispness of the ink, and the regularity of the type. There are over four pages in this stack, brimming with the answer to some question, proposed about subjects that are necessarily personal in nature. All of philosophy is personal, but some philosophers may deny this. Discussed here are philosophers that would not be that silly. Two proto-existentialists, Søren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche, were keen observers of humanity, and yet their conclusions were different enough to seem contradictory. Discussed here will be Nietzsche’s “preparatory human being” and Kierkegaard’s “knight of faith”. Both are archetypal human beings that exist in
Jean-Paul Sartre was an influential 20th century existentialist who mostly acquired information on the study of consciousness and the study of being. Sartre spent many years studying philosophy and the existence of God mostly studying the works of Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger. He became a Professor of Philosophy at Le Havre in 1931 and then began teaching at Lycée Pasteur in Paris from 1937 to 1939. During his career, Sartre wrote about many philosophical theories, some notable books include La nausée published in 1938, Being and Nothingness published in 1943, and many more lectures and literature for individuals to read for years to come. Sartre was an important figure of existentialism and was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1964 but turned it down. Some of Jean-Paul Sartre’s existentialist principles are the act of free will, forced to take responsibility for all actions, and the existence of God.
Rachel Carson’s Man and the Stream of time possesses enlightening perspectives of nature that have been marinating in her mind for ten years. Her writing reflects upon the effects that man has on nature and the role he plays in the ever changing environment. Her sole observation is that it is man’s nature to want to conquer the world, but nature is not one to be conquered. The writer affirms that nature is an entity that must be dignified, Like English poet Francis Thompson said, “Thou canst not stir a flower without troubling of a star.” Most environmentalist would agree that nature is not stationary, we cut the trees now today, its not just the trees that disappear ten years from now. As humanity advances, we create a multitude of
Existentialism was in part a reaction to modernism, but its roots can be traced to ancient philosophical traditions ranging from Zoroastrianism and Judaism, Buddhism and Platonism (Flynn). The essence of existentialism is authenticity of experience, asking the philosopher to undergo deep introspection. However, existentialism is perhaps most famous for its probing questions about what Friedrich Nietzsche called the "tension of the soul," (2). Known colloquially as existential angst, the "tension of the soul," search for meaning and purpose in life has characterized personal and collective identity formation in the twentieth century. Books like Viktor Frankl's Man's Search for Meaning is quintessentially existential in its approach to the author's coming to terms with his experiences in a Nazi concentration camp. Existentialism made its mark on the social sciences, and especially psychology. When psychology emerged as a discipline, Sigmund Freud's theories had a clear existential basis due to his emphasis on the death wish and the deeper realms of human consciousness and its phenomenology. Therefore, existentialism has had a tremendous impact on the evolution of Western society in the twentieth century and well into the 21st as well.
In this article the meaning of Existentialism is explained as the author, Randall Niles, describes how existentialism is a 20th century philosophy that centers itself on the analysis of human existence. He explains the popular slogan “existence precedes essence” by the very first founders of Existentialism, Jean Paul Sartre. The notion of the slogan is described by explaining how humans come into existence when they are first born, and spend their lifetime changing their essence and nature so it satisfies them. The philosophy of Existentialism is further analysed by explaining how humans find themselves and the ultimate meaning of their life by acknowledging their responsibility and making decisions accordingly. Moreover, it also explains
Martin Heidegger stated, criticizing the “wrong” path that western philosophy deviated to, that people understood “being” only in the superficial sense. The advancements in mathematics and natural sciences along the millennia always pre-assumed that being was a known phenomenon and never bothered to explore its true nature; bypassing the herculean task, we never delved into what “Ontos” really
The approach focuses on experience and meaning of human capacity to be (Jacobson, 2006; Pitchford, 2009). To exist authentically, people must engage with the situation in which they find themselves at the same time separate from it (Heidegger, 1927/2008). The Existential perspective sees life events as opportunities rather than mere disruption or inconveniences. An extreme event such as sexual abuse is an opportunity for growth and transformation (Jacobson, 2006; Pitchford,
Throughout history people gain glory for their own reasons, Martin Heidegger gained his glory by being driven to change politics within the Nazi movement, helping the well-being of our planet and trying to influence the world for the better regarding his philosophical ideology.
Introduction: For centuries philosophers have engaged themselves into conversations and arguments trying to figure out the nature of a human person; this has lead to various theories and speculation about the nature of the human mind and body. The question they are tying to answer is whether a human being is made of only the physical, body and brain, or both the physical or the mental, mind. In this paper I will focus on the mind-body Identity Theory to illustrate that it provides a suitable explanation for the mind and body interaction.
1. Life is full of complex emotions to ordinary humankind. With the accumulation of sentiments, people’s mind will barely afford the emotional fluctuations. Hence, ego comes up and temporarily mitigates the pain by offering misleading identifications. In the mean time, a rational thinking of the essence will lead people to a way of awakening. Through the combination of objective analysis with reasonable treatment to objects, people will get rid of those subjective perspectives made by the ego. In the book A New Earth: Awakening to Your Life’s Purpose, Eckhart Tolle indicates the concept of ego and the entity of life purpose, and then he emphasizes the importance of awareness and arouses our intelligence. The primary factor in creation is consciousness. Once people realize and accept to be the awareness behind the surface of thoughts and emotions, peace and true happiness will follow.
The philosophical question being asked already introduces the finitude of human existence, since, according to Martin Heidegger human beings, as Da-sein, exist “as thrown being(s)-toward-its-end,”1 recognizing death is recognized as a possibility of Da-sein. However, it is important to define death in Heidegger’s context because he establishes the idea that death is a reality that we, as human beings, encounter as a possibility of being. As such, the relation between death and authentic existence must also be clarified, so as to fully understand what it truly means to be Da-sein.
“The existential theory is concerned for the personal "commitment" of this interesting existing unique in the "human circumstances”.
Martin Heidegger is a widely recognized German positivist philosopher (Heidegger 1927/2011). Heideggerian phenomenology explores ‘the being’ as understood through lived experience. Heidegger focused on ‘Dasein,’ or, ‘the mode of being human.’ Heidegger believed understanding is a basic form of human existence. One of the essential goals of Heideggerian phenomenology is to uncover the meaning of everyday ordinary human existence. Everyday ordinary existence is where the meaning of that existence resides. Understanding is not a way we know the world, rather, understanding is the way we are. Heideggerian phenomenology is existential and ontological in nature, and asks, ‘What does it mean to be a person?’ Heidegger views a person as a self-interpreting being. A person exists as a ‘being’ that is a part of the world in which they exist. Heidegger focused on the human being’s existence in their world as an individual and within their social context. Heidegger viewed both world and being as inseparable. Heidegger argues against a presuppositionless approach to phenomenology, and asserts that interpretation can only make explicit what is already
Heidegger's question of Being, is a question which concerns human facticity, i.e. our actual being-in-the-world in its temporal and enigmatic character. As he stated in the 30s, for him this question arose out of the experience of the "forgetfulness of Being" [Seinsvergessenheit] and of the "abandonment of Being in beings" [Seinsverlassenheit des Seienden], that is, out of the possibility of not being at all. With the question of Being, Heidegger struggled to uncover the original historical ground to which humans belong, a ground from which modern society tends to uproot itself through the dominance of calculative and representational thinking. What is most dangerous for Heidegger in this process, is that the original ground of humans and beings in general might be covered and forgotten, to the extent that humans loose completely the sense of what they truly need. For Heidegger, the task of thinking (of philosophy) is to help to bring back humans and beings in general to the place to which they originally belong, i.e. to their originally, most fulfilled way of being which is their proper or own [das Eigene, eigen].