Data Quality As Crime And Crime

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In our continuing state of shrinking government operating budgets, crime scientists and crime analysts need to consider the interrelatedness of spatial and temporal shifts in crime patterns when creating, tracking, and handling crime hot spots. Many studies indicate that crimes are clustered at the neighborhood level, but the entire neighborhood is rarely (if ever) criminogenic and only specific parts of neighborhoods contain high concentrations of crime

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

The study of crime traditionally involved disciples such as psychology and sociology (George, 1978) but crime has always had an inherent geographic quality as crimes will always be linked to a geographical location (Chainey and Radcliff,
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Then finally looking at the study area of the District of Columbia (Washington D.C.), identifying why this area is one of Americas problem crime areas.

2.2 History of GIS and Crime The use of GIS in crime has been around for centuries with Dent (2000) tracing the mapping of crime back to 1829, when Adriano Balbi and André Michel Guerry created choropleth maps showing the relationship between violent and property crimes with education levels. As time went on sociologists from the Chicago School, Shaw and McKay (1931) began to map crimes by their XY coordinates to show the geographic location to understand the importance of the crime location. In the 1980’s the reduction in price of computers meant it became more cost effective for GIS Applications (Longley et al, 2011). With the introduction of the new GIS technologies, the ability to use police records within the GIS applications allowed for crime and intelligence analysis (Radcliff, 2004). These days the advancements in technology and the reductions in cost has resulted in GIS applications moving from the backroom computer analysis tool to be used by almost every discipline, from criminology to healthcare, natural resources to economics. These advancements have not just been in the applications but also in the science behind them. This has allowed for more advanced analysis, which use well known mathematical models within their calculations, such as spatial statistics and the use of the Getis-Ordi
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