David Mcclelland And Motivational Needs Theory

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McClelland (1917-1998) and motivational needs theory

A doctor of psychology, David McClelland pioneered workplace motivational thinking, developed achievement based motivational theory and promoted improvements in employee assessment methods. He is best known for describing three types of motivational need which he identified in his book, The Achieving Society (1961)

Achievement motivation
A person with strong motivational need for achievement need will seek to reach realistic and challenging goals and job advaancement.They thrive on overcoming difficult problems or situations. People motivated by achievement work very effectively either alone or with other high achievers. There is a constant need for feedback regarding progress and achievement
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The desire to control others is powerful motivating force-the need to be influential, effective and to make an impact. There is a strong leadership instinct and when authority is gained over others, it brings personal status and prestige. As they enjoy competition, they do well with goal-orientated projects or tasks. They may also be very effective in negotiations or in situations in which

Mc Gregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
According to Mc Gregor’s studies conducted in 1950’s,one of the most important determinants of success of a business is the attitude of managers to workers.He identified two distinct management approaches to the workforce and he called it Theory X and Theory Y.

Theory X
Theory X mangers tend to take a pessimistic view of their subordinates and assume that they are naturally demotivated and dislike work. As a result, they think they need to be prompted, rewarded or punished constantly to make sure that they complete their tasks. This in turn encouraged centralised management style.
The manager assumes that their subordinates :
 Dislike their work.
 Avoid responsibility and need constant direction.
 Have to be controlled, forced and threatened to deliver work.
 Need to be supervised at every
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