Decision-Making in Pluralist, Hierarchical and Consensus Structure

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Decision Making Process . Introduction Robbins (1998: 103) states that decisions are choices made from two or more alternatives. Decisions are made as a reaction to a problem. That is, there is a discrepancy between the current state of affairs and some desired state requiring consideration of alternative courses of action. This however requires any person in the position where he/she must make decisions to consider some aspects regarding decision-making. This not only includes relevant information but also the application of knowledge and/or skills to use this information to realize a decision. Decision making and its processes are…show more content…
Such problems deserve special treatment.” Rowe and Boulgarides (1992: 16) on the other hand categorized decisions into three: (1) Routine decisions – involves the carrying out and following of an organizations goal, prescribed policies and/or rules; (2) Creative decisions – whereby new or novel approaches are needed to handle more complex problems; and (3) Negotiated decisions – occurring in situations where conflict in goals or approaches to problem solving need to be resolved by involving participants. Decision-Making Processes in a Hierarchical Political System . Hierarchy, per Encyclopaedia Britannica’s definition, is “[…] a ranking of positions of authority, often associated with a chain of command and control. The term is derived from the Greek words hieros (“sacred”) and archein (“rule” or “order”).” Combining the two words, hierarchy can be termed as “a sacred rule or order”. A hierarchy tries to place mankind in a class order within a structure order, often defined by laws, customs, rules or conduct or other forms of structuring mechanism. Hierarchies are used to make decisions in rational ways, to avoid confusion, to order people around in a way that operates efficiently, and for other reasons. Hierarchy is as old as human existence on the planet earth.

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