Decreasing Low Grade Systemic Inflammation Through Exercise

2950 Words Sep 6th, 2012 12 Pages
Persistent low-grade inflammation has been identified as a significant contributor to the development of several chronic diseases, (Niklas et al, 2005) including heart disease and type II diabetes (Woods et al, 2009). Inflammation is indicated by an increased concentration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-Reactive protein (CRP) in the bloodstream (Niklas et al, 2005). This elevation may be due to a number of factors, including increased visceral adipose tissue secreting cytokines (Niklas et al, 2005), decreased circulatory levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10), and elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. (4) This essays aims to show the role that exercise can play in reducing inflammation, and will examine this …show more content…
This is usually caused by a positive energy balance, and more relevantly a sedentary lifestyle. Increased amounts of visceral fat can be detrimental to the anti-inflammatory phenotype of adipose tissue, which is normally characterised by small adipocytes and the presence of anti-inflammatory immune cells, or adipokines, such as M2-macrophages and CD4-regulatory T-cells (Bishop et al., 2011). These cells release the anti-inflammatory cytokine adiponectin. The presence of visceral fat causes these adipocytes to expand, and then infiltrated by pro-inflammatory adipokines, such as M1-macrophages. This causes the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as CRP and TNF (Bishop et al., 2011). These cause a state of low-grade systemic inflammation, which can cause vascular damage and disrupt regular metabolism (Canino et al., 2011)
Exercise can aid the reduction of visceral fat in the body, which can lead to significantly decreasing pro-inflammatory adipokines, and return adipose tissue to its more natural state of a natural anti-inflammatory endocrine organ. A decrease in visceral fat causes adipocytes to shrink, and begin to eliminate infiltrating pro-inflammatory adipokines, which are one of the primary causes of this low-grade systemic inflammation. It also allows the anti-inflammatory adipokines to become the more predominant cell in the adipose tissue, which can maintain homeostasis, and counter some
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