Deductive Reasoning

1272 WordsOct 3, 20056 Pages
Deductive Reasoning In order to fully understand deductive reasoning, there are certain points to be noted. First, what is the nature of deductive reasoning? Logical strength is defined as the property of an argument whose premises, if true provide support for its conclusion. Deductive and inductive arguments are also distinguished based on the point that logical strength is a matter of degree. This distinction makes it necessary to understand the nature of deductive reasoning. Therefore, deductive arguments are those whose premises guarantee the truth of the conclusion, and inductive arguments are those whose premises make it reasonable to accept the conclusion though do not absolutely guarantee its truth. Deductive reasoning is…show more content…
• The logical operators also play crucial part in telling precisely how the truth of the statement as a whole is determined by the truth values of its component statements. They also define the different kinds of truth-functional statement as explained above. Four kinds of truth-functions: 1. It is false that Keanu Reeves is gay. Negation - the statement p is false is true when the component statement is false and false when the component statement is true 2. Manny Pacquiao is the world's featherweight champion and he has not been defeated so far. Conjunction – true if and only if both statements are true and false it both is false or either one is false 3. Either he stole it or somebody else stole it. Disjunction – true when either one of the components is true or if both are true, it is false when both are false • It is to note that disjunction is to be considered among complex statements. Consider the example, either Mac did it or Bud it. This statement will still be grammatically correct if written as either Mac or Bud did it but this perhaps is merely a simple statement containing compound subjects. • It is also important to note that in a disjunctive truth-function the two disjuncts are exhaustive but not exclusive. This means that the disjuncts cannot be both false (exhaustive) but both may be true (not exclusive). 4. If one commits homicide then he must be imprisoned. Implication – if p then q; the first component is called the antecedent, the second
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