Deep Sea Adaptations

2080 Words Jun 25th, 2013 9 Pages
Life in the deep ocean

[pic] Investigate how organisms survive in an extreme environment
Earth and space science: 2.4

Credits: 4

Arnold Weiner


1.0 Introduction 2.0 Ocean zones 2.1 The epipelagic zone 2.2 The mesopelagic zone 2.3 The bathypelagic zone 2.4 The abyssopelagic zone 2.5 The haedopelagic zone 3.0 The Bathypterois 3.1 Adaptations 3.11 Feeding 3.12 Reproduction
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Bathypelagic organisms are mostly black, red or transparent, rendering them essentially invisible in the weak biological light. Because they do not go anywhere, streamlining has either not evolved or has disappeared.

2.3 The Bathypelagic Zone

In the bathypelagic zone, most organisms 4 are unable to undertake vertical daily migrations because below a certain depth the pressure is too great and the swim bladder is unable to function – gas cannot be produced. Most of these fish lack swim bladders or, like orange roughy, have bladders that are filled with wax. Sharks do not have swim bladders but are able to move vertically. To plane up and down they rely on strong swimming and the buoyancy provided by their oily livers (oil is less dense than water). This zone is located at a depth of 1000 to 4000 metres. The only source of light is from bioluminescence, as no sunlight can reach these depths. The pressure is enormous; at 5800 psi (pounds per square inch) it is almost 400 times the pressure at sea level (14.7 psi).

2.4 The abyssopelagic zone

This zone extends from 4000 to 6000 metres deep. 5The water temperature is so cold that it is near freezing, and there is no light at all. Very few creatures can be found in these freezing, no light, and bone crushing depths. Most of these creatures are invertebrates, such as

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